When students search for study tips and learning methods that can help them improve their habits and grades, experts often talk about focusing and studying one topic at a time.

This is a good strategy if there’s enough time and the topics are not too complex. However, as many students and educators would note, the course content only gets more complicated as the students advance to higher grade levels. Therefore, students have to learn other strategies that will allow them to study various topics while broadening their capacity to understand these complex topics.

What if I told you that you could alternate between topics and reap the same (if not more) learning benefits than if you took one topic at a time?

Related reading: How to Study Using Spaced Practice

What is Interleaving? 

Interleaving is a learning method that involves studying a mix of different topics. This is a systematic mixing of topics—not random. And like any learning technique, the main goal of interleaving (mixing) topics is to improve learning.   

The principles of Interleaving learning can be applied when learning different topics. See an example below:

You have a World History exam coming up, which you have to study for. The exam coverage encompasses Europe during the Medieval and Renaissance periods. This includes the life, society, politics, arts, and culture of the times.

Should you study each topic one at a time, or should you switch between topics? 

Studying for this test using the interleaving method means learning about the history of countries during specific eras (Medieval, Renaissance, etc.) and comparing what was happening in each country and see if there are any connections there. For test preparation, you can use the interleaving method on a subject-specific level. This could mean mixing up the different types of questions per subject.

How the Interleaving Method Works 

When using the interleaving method, it’s not just about picking the most random topics and studying them interchangeably. To maximize the benefits, there has to be a system to it, from setting a goal to the actual implementation of the technique.

Here is an example of how to do it:

  1. Start with a goal in mind. In the case of studying history, one goal can be to understand how the historical events happening in one country can affect other countries.
  2. Choose topics to study. Studying per era and interleaving the historical events of different countries can facilitate a broader understanding of world history.

Note: learners can choose to interleave different topics from one subject (as in the World History example) or choose to study multiple subjects.

  1. Devote enough time for studying each topic. To thoroughly learn and understand a topic, students have to devote a sufficient amount of studying. Do not switch to a different topic or subject should the current one becomes more challenging.
  2. Mix it up by spacing them throughout the week and using a variety of study methods if needed. It is best to follow a schedule as this creates a system for learning.
  3. Make connections between the concepts and ideas that you have learned. This is the most crucial part, as this is the step that adds depth to the learning process.

The interleaving method challenges the brain to constantly retrieve information as students go back and forth between topics. Thus, students are required to access information that is stored in their long-term memory. If anything, this shows that relying on information that is stored in the short-term memory is not sufficient.

What It Is Not

Now that we have explored what interleaving is, it is time to explore it as it relates to other concepts: blocked practice, spaced repetition, and multitasking. 

Blocked practice requires students to study one subject before moving on to the next topic. In a way, it is the opposite of the interleaving method. This is the method that has been discussed in many education and learning circles.

In spaced repetition, the brain is challenged by putting gaps in your study schedule. In the interleaving strategy, the gap is filled in by a different topic—the “spacing” is filled in with a topic that is meant to be mixed with the current one being studied.

Both interleaving and spaced repetition require students to use retrieval practice. In spaced repetition, students have to recall and retrieve information that they deliberately forgot. In interleaving, students have to retrieve the information they previously learned and connect it to the one that they are currently learning. 

Interleaving is not multitasking. It might seem like the same thing on the surface level, but multitasking in learning implies learning a handful of topics on a surface level while not really mastering any of them.

The point of interleaving is to explore various topics that are somehow related to each other that would hopefully lead to mastery of a subject—doing so systematically and following a schedule.  

The Interleaving Technique is Not Always the Best Option

Interleaving is attributed to introducing variety into a student’s study schedule. Instead of studying one topic at a time, they are asked to explore two or more topics and mix them most productively, promoting learning and mastery of a given topic.  

The interleaving method is often compared with blocked practice because these two are different. However, they both serve other functions and cater to the needs of different types of learners. That is to say, interleaving might be effective and efficient, but so is blocked practice.

Students have to have the ability to use different learning strategies when faced with various topics to help them achieve their academic goals. Aside from interleaving and blocked practice, there are other methods like mind mapping, the Leitner method, SQ3R, Feynman technique, among many others. These techniques have their own merit and are designed to help different types of learners. However, there is no one way or one best method that can work for everyone.


Interleaving has a lot of benefits for students and adults. While there are many study and learning techniques out there, it wouldn’t hurt to try interleaving, especially if you already have an existing study routine or are good at making and following schedules.

Interleaving requires studying a mixture of topics, and if done regularly (following a plan), it can help students retain information while making connections between concepts.

The interleaving method is said to help develop a person’s capability and capacity for problem solving and categorization. In addition, because students have to study a few topics at one, they learn to differentiate one concept from another. Likewise, it helps strengthen the memory. As they make connections, they have to recall information that they previously learned.

Because students are constantly retrieving information and making connections, various parts of the brain are activated at a single study session. Thus, the interleaving effect is called such as a result of learning better due to using the interleaving method.

In addition, interleaving topics can train people’s brains to differentiate and discriminate between topics that may be similar to each other.

Interleaving helps when studying science and math subjects but can also work for social sciences (as cited in the example above). In a subject like math, where students are taught to use various formulas to solve the same equation, they have to understand the fundamental differences and similarities with the formulas and why one method is more appropriate than the other despite arriving at the same answer. 

On a practical level, the interleaving method is relatively easy to implement into one’s study routine. Students have to study for multiple subjects in a semester anyway. The interleaving method is just one of the ways to put a system to the learning.

These benefits can be helpful even in adulthood and working life. People have to handle multiple projects at once. Students can apply the skills and aptitudes that they learned while doing the interleaving method.

Focusing by taking on multiple topics

Interleaving has a paradoxical benefit in the sense that by mixing topics together, a person is able to focus more so that they can learn and retain as much information while studying one subject. When that happens, they can tap into this information when they study for the next topic and keep accessing it whenever needed.

By extension, interleaving develops students’ ability to transfer skills and knowledge that they learned from one subject area that might be applicable to another.

While doing one thing at a time (in this case, one subject at a time) is almost always associated with boosting focus, so can a carefully planned mixture of topics and questions. 

Final Thoughts

The interleaving method is a learning technique that is labor-intensive at first because it involves careful planning of study sessions and selecting content that will be interleaved. However, this can have long-term benefits as it facilitates higher-order and critical thinking skills. While blocked learning has been spoken so highly about for teaching students to focus, interleaving topics can do the same thing while boosting the learning capacity of students.

The interleaving method may not work for everyone, but students have to at least be aware of the other study methods that they can utilize when what they’re using no longer serves them. 

If you fancy a career in software development then you’ve chosen an extremely popular, rewarding and competitive industry. Demand for software developers has never been higher and job prospects for the right people are incredibly positive. It is a field that is constantly evolving as technology continues to progress apace and so making sure you have relevant, up to date qualifications is crucial. 

Get it right and you can look forward to a career that is both satisfying and financially well rewarded. With many areas of specialism on offer, you can work towards finding your own niche and achieve true career satisfaction.

What is a software developer?

Software developers are the creators behind computer programs of all kinds. From apps for your Smartphone and those highly addictive computer games to programs that help us do our daily work and that can even turn on the oven for our evening meal; the technology behind all these things has been created by software developers.

It isn’t hard to see why software development is such an in-demand career when you consider its ever-increasing impact on everyday life.

Software development is a huge field but can be broken down into a number of different categories, depending on where you see your skills best utilized or where your interests lie. Most people become more specialized as their experience grows and they have a greater understanding of the industry. 

Systems software developers develop and implement applications and programs for backend processing systems used in businesses and organizations, whilst a web developer specializes in the development of web applications using client-server models.

Mobile development involves creating software applications for mobile devices such as mobile phones and test automation developers design and write programs that run automated tests on new or existing software.

Other related jobs include technical author, information scientist, multimedia programmer, data visualization analyst, systems analyst, operational researcher and information technology / software trainer.

What does a software developer do?

The creation of software applications involves the writing of code and so its subsequent development would be overseen by a software engineer or developer. Their work could involve analyzing the needs of the end user whether for an individual or an organization, and then creating, testing and developing the software to satisfy that need.

These applications can range from providing software solutions to a specific problem, to offering some form of entertainment, or just making life easier for the client.

Once the developer has outlined the software, they would then create flowcharts to map out each step of the software development process. This offers clear instruction to the programmer on how to write the correct code for the program or app.

Related duties of a software developer, engineer or programmer involve future proofing the software for upgrades and enhancements which might become necessary in the future and collaborating with other specialists to guarantee best value and quality from the program.

What skills are needed?

A good balance of hard and soft skills is necessary to become a successful software developer. Don’t be fooled into thinking a software developer is simply sat in front of a computer working their magic. There is much more to the role than that and it is one that requires considerable collaboration, creativity and organization. 

Having a comprehensive selection of skills means the developer can take on the complete software development process which will put them in an extremely attractive position when it comes to their job search.

Soft skills: Problem solving & analytical skills

One of the most important skills required as a software developer is the ability to analyze and solve problems. Many programs exist purely to solve an issue or problem for the end user.

Software engineers also have to be able to identify and isolate problems and bugs within computer programs. Enjoying getting to grip with solving problems and seeing them through to the end are helpful attributes to possess as a software developer.


Coming up with new programs, games or apps can be key abilities to pursuing a career in software development. This requires the ability to come up with innovative and cutting-edge ideas so being open, creative and up to date with current trends can go a long way to help you in the tech industry. If you have a genuine interest in and a love of gadgets and technology, then you are all set for a lifelong career in software development.

Communication & teamwork

Working with clients, end users and other software experts, enables the developer to come up with the best product possible, and so the ability to communicate effectively can be extremely helpful to improving your career prospects. 

Successful collaboration can greatly help with your job prospects. Although jobs in the tech industry are often seen as being solitary, in order to be truly successful in this area, working and communicating with others is vital.

Time management

The ability to manage time efficiently is very important to being a successful software developer. Software applications have to go through various stages before completion, so there are often strict deadlines and targets to work to. It is good to be able to show that you can produce effective results on time and on budget.

Hard skills 

Software development is a complex and highly technical industry and so it goes without saying that in order to pursue a successful career in this field, you will need specific technical and theoretical knowledge. 

Computer programs are effectively written in another language and so in order to be able to develop programs for a living, you would be required to be fluent in one or more of these computer languages. Choosing the right language can feel like an impossible choice because there are so many out there. Unless you are looking to specialize in a particular area of software straight away, then there are a few more obvious languages which might be a good place for you to start. 

These include Java, JavaScript, Python, SQL, Go, Swift, Git, PHP and C++, but there are many, many more!

The best and most effective way into a career in software development is to get a degree in a software related subject such as computer science, data science, software engineering, information technology or some universities now even run their own software development degree courses. If you have a university degree with focus on software engineering principles with sufficient industry experience, then for sure you may be offered a job opportunity by an organization to run their software development process smoothly and deliver high quality applications.

It is possible to follow a career in software development without a degree, but you would definitely still need to undertake some kind of professional course in a related topic and gain practical experience, in order to progress up the career ladder.

A gateway into a career in software development is to take an online course in software development or computer programming, but with so many to choose from it can be hard to know where to begin.

What online platforms are there?

Just like when you’re buying a car – you wouldn’t buy the first car you see – you shop around. The same is true with providers of software training courses. The choice can seem positively overwhelming to begin with, but we’ve done the hard work for you and researched some of the top providers of courses on software development. This isn’t an exhaustive guide by any means, but it gives a useful overview of the different types and levels of courses available. 

It is possible to combine a number of different courses into one learning track to give yourself a more rounded selection of skills. The combination of courses you choose to take depends entirely on the area in which you are looking to work. Software development can be extremely specialized, so it is well worth doing your research into what exactly is required for your chosen field before you commit to any courses on any particular online platform.


This US based online learning platform offers free coding in 12 different programming languages. As well as the free courses, you have the option of paying a subscription to upgrade your course and you can receive a fully personalized learning plan. 

At the end of the course, you receive an individual certificate which although it isn’t recognized as a formal professional qualification, it would certainly offer a potential employer evidence that you have knowledge of a particular programming language. The courses are popular because of their easy to understand format and are great entry level courses for absolute beginners.

Because Codecademy specializes in offering technology-related online courses, it means it can offer a healthy selection of relevant learning options. In addition to the coding courses, Codecademy also provides courses in web development, data science, computer science, machine learning, code foundations and web design.


This works as what is known as an MOOC (massive open online course) and so offers access to a vast array of online courses, in partnership with leading educational organizations. Some courses are free and some are paid for and range from basic beginners’ courses to micro-bachelors and micro-masters degrees. Because courses are accredited, this means that the certificates of completion will go a long way to show potential employers on your resume that you know your stuff.

With more than 2,500 courses on offer the choice is great and includes computer science, software engineering and software development. 

The beauty of signing up with edX is that there are no prerequisite qualifications or experience needed, so unlike many universities and colleges, it offers access for everyone no matter what level they are at. Courses are self-paced so can be fitted in around other commitments, again adding to an overall sense of inclusion.

Courses are set up in unique blocks with students given weekly targets including videos and interactive learning exercises.


Offering literally thousands of online courses, Coursera is another MOOC like edX, but where it differs is in the sheer choice of courses it offers. From degree courses to professional qualifications to specialized Coursera courses, the possibilities are endless. The organization has joined forces with some of the most prestigious educational establishments from around the world, so a qualification from Coursera is going to pack a punch.

Coursera is able to offer a unique collection of courses which can last between four and 12 weeks. Most will involve a few hours of video lectures a week with other course content including assignments, projects, weekly exercises and quizzes.

Taking a course with Coursera means you have access to college-level guidance from professors based at some of the world’s most renowned and accredited educational organizations. With more than 4,000 courses available partnered with over 200 universities from 29 countries around the world, this really is the crème de la crème of online course providers.

Software development courses available on Coursera include Master of Computer Science, Master of Computing and IT, Bachelor of Science in Computer Science, Certificate in Applied Data Science, IBM Full Stack Cloud Development and Python for Everybody, to name just a few.


One of the most popular learning platforms in the world with online presence, Udemy has more than 35m students who can choose from more than 1,000 courses. It is most well-known for its courses in IT and business, making it the perfect platform to choose if you are looking for an IT related course. 

Its top IT courses include Complete Java Masterclass, Complete Python Bootcamp, Web Developer Bootcamp, Beginning C++ Programming, Complete JavaScript Course, Complete Node.js Developer Course – the list goes on! Without doubt, Udemy has the largest marketplace of courses to select from.

Users talk about the benefits of its technical features, and the beauty of a course with Udemy, is that its content is available for life so you can go back and revisit information time and time again. You are also given the option of ‘trying before you buy’ which is a really good feature.

Course content includes a good combination of videos, text and audio lectures, giving students a well-balanced and user friendly courses.


Relatively new to the market, Treehouse has made quite an impact in just a few years. Offering technically-orientated learning this MOOC platform, provides professional courses and learning tracks aimed at people wanting to pursue a career in technically-focused fields. There are more than 300 individual courses covering 23 subjects. 

Learning tracks are a sequence of courses covering the same subject for people who want to progress and move through a specific field or industry. One of the most popular features of the Treehouse platform is the Treehouse ProTech degree. Unique to Treehouse, this program gives people the option of progressing from beginner to ‘job ready’ in a matter of months (between two and 12 depending on the subject). 

More than 50,000 students have chosen Treehouse to study with and it is known for being easy to navigate and highly user friendly. Another great feature of Treehouse is that you can take a free trial before committing which is a highly effective way of testing out a course before you have to pay for it. 

Offering a variety of video-based coding courses, all the most popular programming languages are available including Java, Ruby, Swift, HTML, CSS, Python and JavaScript. Software development courses include web design, web development, iOS development, PHP development and Android development.


One of the fastest growing learning platforms in the world, this award-winning online education company offers online and offline training. Its aim is to make learning and education accessible and available to all, regardless of age, background or location. It has partnered with a number of leading academic organizations and corporations to offer round the clock classes, support and even in-built messaging systems.

The platform boasts more than 40,000 students and there are thousands of hours of training available on Edureka. There are online lectures available in around 20 categories with plenty of choice for the keen software developer looking to improve their job prospects. Choose from software testing, frontend development, mobile development, Edureka data science courses, artificial intelligence, Edureka big data and Cloud computing.

Edureka prides itself on offering relevant and up-to-date training in emerging technologies such as machine learning and blockchain and offers courses suitable for everyone from graduates through to experienced professionals looking up to brush up on their skills and knowledge.


Offering a refreshingly different approach to the world of online learning, Alison has a good choice of software related courses. Its unique selling point is the fact that it generates its income from advertising so you can take free courses and certifications, making it completely democratic.

There are nine key areas in which you can take courses including information technology. Within this field there is a wide variety of courses available which include Introduction to Software Testing, Diploma in Software Testing, Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP), IT Management Software and Databases and Software Defined Networking and Cloud Computing. 

You can choose from three main types of courses. Working towards a certificate allows you to focus on a specific subject and is a quick and easy way to gain knowledge on your chosen subject in just a few hours. Diploma courses take a little longer but will obviously carry more kudos at the end and a full learning path requires more of a commitment, but means that you will end up with a comprehensive knowledge in a particular area.


If you are looking for an accredited course that you can undertake at your own pace, then Simplilearn is the perfect choice. With more than 400 courses on offer and a team of over 2,000 professional experts, the aim of the platform is to help professionals improve their skill set, build their knowledge and progress towards their career goals.

Courses last on average a month, though some may be shorter and others longer. You need to fully commit when you sign up for a Simplilearn course, but the results are worth it.

The courses use a variety of learning tools ranging from videos and live discussions to quizzes, assignments, projects and final exams. With the help of provided guidelines one can work on personal projects as well.

The platform is considered to be easy to use and appeals to professionals who want to take accredited courses taught by industry experts. In the field of software development, Simplilearn offers a number of courses including a Professional Certificate Program in Blockchain, a Post Graduate Program in Cloud Computing and a Post Graduate Program in Data Science.


Specializing only in data science and analysis courses, DataCamp is ideal for seasoned professionals who want to enhance their skills and collaborate with fellow industry colleagues. This MOOC partners with more than 1,600 companies and 3,000 academic organizations, offering in excess of 350 courses to some 7m learners in 180 countries. That’s some impressive stats!

Course students can choose from stand-alone courses and learning tracks. Learning tracks are divided into two categories. Skill tracks are a combination of individual courses which combine to give all-round knowledge needed to master a specific skill or area, whilst career track courses are designed to help the student prepare for a particular career.

Courses are engaging and interactive and students can choose from programming courses in Python, R and SQL as well as data engineering, programming, machine learning, importing and cleaning data, data manipulation and data visualization.


One of the best known and longest established learning platforms, Pluralsight provides nearly 5,000 different courses primarily in the field of technology. Most courses have easily downloadable files so you can continue to practice when offline in your own time.

Attractive features include completion certificates, learning checks and quizzes and discussion forums. According to users, Pluralsight offers some of the best quality video content around and is considered to be extremely user-friendly.

Relevant software courses include End-to-End Software Development, Building Software, Software Systems Security, Java Path, Python Path, Cloud Computing and Machine Learning / Artificial Intelligence.


Founded in the UK, FutureLearn was one of Britain’s first online education providers. It offers a wide selection of British courses and also a number of universities in the US. Courses range from popular short courses through to micro-credential programs and certificates, and even full online degrees. It is unusual to be able to work towards a recognized and accredited degree from a fully online platform and this is what sets FutureLearn apart from many of its competitors.

The platform boasts more than 10m students and partners with over 175 universities from around the world.

Its courses are fully accredited and certificates are issued by the universities themselves rather than FutureLearn, meaning they carry a lot more weight.

FutureLearn uses a variety of learning tools from video content, audio tasks and reading articles through quizzes and assignments. There is a good selection of software related courses to choose from. Some examples include Software Development Fundamentals, Programming Language and HTML, Software Development with Java and Python and Collaborative Coding with Git.

LinkedIn Learning

One of the top providers of online learning courses, what makes LinkedIn Learning different is the sheer choice of courses on offer. With more than 16,000 available at any one time, more than 50 brand new courses are added to the platform each week and classes are uploaded constantly. 

Students can choose from learning by subject, to improve their experience in a particular skill set, or they can take a learning path which can help them transition into a completely new field.

The courses are easy to access and everyone receives a certificate of completion at the end of their course. Thanks to LinkedIn’s ubiquity, its courses are industry-recognized and are a great way to add to your existing skill set or even give you the option of choosing to take a completely different career path. 

If you are looking to switch to another career into software development, then LinkedIn Learning might be a good place to start. Relevant courses include Learning Python, Python Essential Training, SQL Essential Training and Blockchain Basics.

What are the essential skills for a software developer?

The tech industry is evolving constantly and so, implicit in the role as software developer, is the need to keep upgrading your knowledge and qualifications. Whether you are entry level or a seasoned professional, you will be required to make sure your career portfolio is up to date. 

The following list isn’t meant to be in any way comprehensive but gives a snapshot of the skills considered essential to be a successful software developer in 2021.

Cloud computing skills

Many businesses and organizations are currently shifting over to Cloud as it is more cost effective and offers greater capacity. Sooner or later as a software developer you are likely to have to work with cloud-native software applications as well as roles in data science, machine learning and artificial intelligence. 

Only Cloud can provide the power needed by these resource-hungry models, so it is recommended that you pick up working knowledge of AWS, GCP or Azure. Opinions vary on the best model to learn but AWS is generally considered to be the most popular and well-established.

DataCamp offers a course in Cloud Computing for Everyone, whilst edX offer training in AWS development. Pluralsight has a large selection of AWS related courses from beginner to professional level. Other providers of courses on AWS and Cloud are Udacity, FutureLearn, LinkedIn Learning, Alison, Simplilearn and Treehouse.

Data structure & algorithms

There is no getting away from the need to know about data structure and algorithms. Without knowledge in this area, it’s not possible to write a real-world software application. There are free algorithm courses easily available and most bootcamps teach the basics of data and algorithms.

Pluralsight have courses including Introduction to Algorithms and Algorithms and Data Structures, whilst Coursera runs training in Data Structure and Algorithms and Algorithms Part 1. LinkedIn Learning offers an Introduction to Data Structures and Algorithms in Java. You can also find great entry level courses on data structure and algorithms with DataCamp, edX and Udacity. Udemy provides a course on Algorithms and Data Structures in Python.

Source control

Source control is essential to be able to store code, so if you are looking to be a software developer or coder then you need to know version controls such as Git and SVN. More than 70% of organizations use Git and github open-source projects so knowledge in this area would be extremely pertinent for any resume. There are free entry level courses for Git and more detailed paid-for courses and qualifications so take your pick…

Introductory courses are offered by DataCamp, Treehouse, Pluralsight, Coursera, Edureka, Udemy, LinkedIn Learning and Code Academy with more complex training available via FutureLearn, Alison and Simplilearn.


To be able to say you are completely industry ready as a software developer, then a working knowledge of containers and tools such as Docker and Kubernetes is essential. 

Docker has been proven to help developers test software applications within a unified environment and helps to simplify the deployment process. Scalability can be an issue when it comes to expanding software applications and so awareness of containers such as Kubernetes is priceless as this tool scales up automatically. 

LinkedIn Learning has a number of courses in this area which include basic Learning Docker and Learning Kubernetes courses as well as Docker for Developers and Docker vs Kubernetes. Edureka provides a course in Docker Certification Training while Alison runs a Diploma in Development Operations Engineering – Kubernetes, Docker and Google Cloud. 

You can also choose from a Docker Certified Associate (DCA) Certification Training Course and a course as a Certified Kubernetes Administrator, both organized by Simplilearn. Treehouse’s offering is an Introduction to Docker course and Udemy runs a Docker and VS Code Master Class. Pluralsight has a number of Docker-related training courses.

Text editing

Anyone who wants to work with computers at whatever level has to be able to use a text editor. There are a number of choices, but NotePad is the most popular on Windows and there is also VIM on Linux and Sublime and NotePad++.

You can learn more about VIM with a simple LinkedIn Learning course such as Learning VIM or Introduction to VIM as well as Introduction to Linux and Learning Linux Command Line. Pluralsight offers an interestingly entitled ‘Smash into VIM’ course.

Integrated development environment (IDEs)

An IDE is a software application that combines common developer tools into a single entity. Another essential tool for the aspiring software engineer or coder. The choice of IDE is dependent upon which program you use, but the most popular ones include VS Code, Jupyter Notebook, Eclipse and IntelliJIDEA.

Udemy offers a Learn VS Code course and other providers of training on VS Code include LinkedIn Learning and Pluralsight.


As a software developer you need to be able to demonstrate an understanding of working with databases. You can’t create any kind of application without a database so knowledge in this area is useful.

SQL is considered to be the most popular. It’s been around for many years and looks set to stay, so this would be a good place to start with any database training. 

For pro database administrators, other databases include Oracle, PostgreSQL, Microsoft SQL Server and My SQL. You only need knowledge of one database, so it’s worth doing a bit of research to find which one is the most relevant for you.

Udemy offers a good beginner’s course Introduction to Databases which is free and other online training providers include FutureLearn, Pluralsight, Coursera and edX.

Operating system

Any software developer worth their salt should know the fundamentals and mechanisms of the operating system on which they work. Linux is the most well-known and has been around for more than 30 years.

Displaying a working knowledge of Linux is very useful for a programmer. It allows the operator to work effectively, search files and know exactly what is going on with the system and also means they can perform both basic and more advanced tasks.

There are a multitude of training courses in this area. Choose from Introduction to Linux from LinkedIn Learning, Linux Fundamentals Certification Training from Edureka, Unix/Linux and Shell Scripting Crash Course from Alison, though there are many more.

Computer networks

Most applications and programs are not stand-alone so will need to go through a network to a server where it can be accessed by clients anywhere in the world. In order to work in software design, you would need an understanding of how networks operate in order to develop and support your application or program.

Providers of training in this field include Udemy which offers a course in Complete Networking Fundamentals. Other training includes Bits and Bytes of Computer Networking from Coursera, Computer Networking from Udacity and Introduction to Networking from edX.


Before any software is released onto the market, it has to be thoroughly tested and pass a number of major milestones. Testing is a crucial step to finding any bugs or issues before it’s too late and to make sure that the software application or program is ready to go to market.

There are a number of testing methods but there are three main steps:

  • Unit testing: each module or class is tested individually
  • Integration testing: testing the interaction between modules or blocks
  • System testing: tests conducted on the complete and integrated software

Demonstrating a working knowledge of the testing process means you can offer the whole package as a developer, a real advantage when applying to take on any software project. It is also an area that you can pick up knowledge on relatively easily, so it is well worth adding to your portfolio of skills.

Alison offers both an Introduction to Software Testing and a Diploma in Software Testing whilst Simplilearn has a Masters Program in Automation Testing, CodeAcademy has a course called Learn Testing for Web Development and other providers of testing courses are CodeAcademy, DataCamp, Coursera and FutureLearning. LinkedIn Learning has training in Software Testing and Edureka offers a course in Software Fundamentals Testing.

What is the career path for a software developer?

An entry level position would be a junior developer. From here, you could progress to becoming a software developer with promotion to senior software developer. Executive positions for experienced software developers include lead developer, technical architect, and development team lead, software development manager with top positions including director, vice president and chief technical officer.

Where do software developers work?

Unlike many industries, software development is a rapidly expanding field so the number of job opportunities available is simply vast. Software is all-pervasive and is used within most industries so even though you could choose to specialize in a relatively narrow field of software, the choice of industries to work in is still wide and varied. 

Areas of particular growth are computer systems design and related services, the finance and insurance industries, software publishing, the manufacturing industry and the management of companies and enterprises.

What salary can you expect as a software developer?

Software development was recently declared the number 1 job in the US (this is according to a US News & World Report) with the Bureau of Labor predicting growth of 30% by 2026.

With the software industry being such a popular field in which to work, it is no surprise to learn that salaries can be very lucrative. As with all occupations, the level of salary is dependent on experience, knowledge and qualifications, but the average salary is generally considered to be very rewarding. 

The median salary for systems software developers in 2019 was $107,510 with the highest 10 per cent commanding in excess of $136,320. The lowest 10 per cent received in the region of $82,430.

Whether you are self-taught and are looking to launch a career in the software industry, or you already have a degree in software and are looking to make yourself industry-ready, there is no shortage of online training out there. The beauty of the training available to you is that it is easy to source for free and many courses can be fitted in around other commitments, so you can spend as little or as much time as you wish reaching your ultimate career goal.


People have changed their perceptions of the required programming skills in an era of modern technologies and autonomous and intelligent systems. However, any solid programming skills that top professionals display tend to have proficiency in C++ programming to begin their career paths as a developer.

It is fascinating to discover that C++ is among the most popular programming languages globally due to its applicability for developing a wide range of applications and software programs.

C++ is an extension of the C programming language, which is more dynamic and universal. Although many sophisticated programming languages have been introduced in the past years, C++ plays an essential role in various programming tasks.

Today, C++ is widely used for applications, and a majority of operating systems are programmed using C++ language.  Similarly, C++ is also used in backend technology for applications that require high-end graphical processing with highly graphic-intensive applications.

Simultaneously, C++ is also used for modern gadgets like smartwatches and is found in some of the diagnostic machines in medicine.  The large variety of applications that uses C++ programming ranges from financial systems to cloud systems and even browsers and compilers. Therefore C++ developers continue to have constant demand in the industry.  

Getting Started in the Industry

Educational Qualifications

For aspirants aiming for a career as a C++ developer, the educational qualifications are of utmost importance. A typical C++ developer role requires a bachelor’s degree that will enable developers to have a minimum of an entry-level position which can vary as per the programming proficiency of the individual.

Additionally, those aiming for senior developer positions must opt for a master’s degree and other relevant certifications and hands-on expertise to be considered for such higher positions. According to recent reports, it has been found that more than 40% of the C++ developers and aspirants opt for a major in computer science or specialization in software development to build a solid foundation during their bachelor’s degree.

Foundations for Absolute Beginners

Fundamental Skills

Regardless of the programming languages known to a software engineer, it is essential to have some fundamental skills of the associated factors such as knowledge of databases and operating systems. It is advisable to upskill with the knowledge of SQL and MySQL alongside C++ and a fair amount of concepts related to Windows, and Linux can give the necessary boost to a career as a developer.

Another critical aspect of a developer’s career is the ability to understand source code control. In the current IT industry, the possibility of source code management in software development is necessary as it allows to coordinate the task with multiple experts while having the possibility to keep track of the changes in any of the files.

The combination of programming skills, alongside database and operating system knowledge and Git, can ensure aspirants begin their career slightly above the junior C++ developer positions in an organization as multinationals are always looking for multi-skilled professionals.

Critical Areas of C++ Language

The fundamentals of the C++ language are a must-have for any developer, and having the basics highlights strong developer skills. However, certain areas are highly preferred in the industry, such as data structures and algorithms. 

As learning proceeds to an advanced stage, the individuals must grasp the concepts of virtual methods, destructors, operator overloading, templates, classes, the standard library uses, and syntax. Additionally, several open source projects can be used to strengthen the professional coding styles further.

Furthermore, the essential tool required for development in C++ is a compiler. Therefore, people must understand the use of compiler and command-line interfaces (CLIs).  CLIs can read the programs and convert them into object codes.

This enables the computer to execute the source code directly. However, to make C++ more convenient to use, developers use IDE. Thus, it is advisable to understand how to use Visual Studio for Windows OS users. Similarly, GCC is considered a good option and should be among the skill set as it supports both macOS and Linux.

Essential Tips for Beginners

Those who are willing to take up online certificate courses for upskilling themselves must keep certain things in mind to embark on the journey as a C++ developer.


The amount of time required to learn C++ varies for different learners depending on the previous exposure to any kind of programming. It is highly advisable to begin from scratch for beginners. The learners who have some kind of experience with programming should also opt to refresh the fundamentals. The knowledge of the C language is a big plus as it allows learners to grasp the concepts much faster.


In the beginning, the basics of C++ might seem to be overwhelming. However, seeking experienced C++ programmers can make the learning easier with industry-oriented tips, which are not available in any books but are generated out of the experience.

Continuous Practice

To gain mastery of C++, one must look to have sufficient exposure to hands-on experience as it is the critical aspect of any programmer. The individuals should practice on real-world projects and understand the coding and approaches by top programmers on open-source projects. As technologies continue to evolve, the style of coding changes, hence one must look to visualize modern approaches which can provide invaluable information on the journey as a C++ developer.

Error Fix

As much as the coding aspect of programming is essential, a developer is considered an expert in finding errors in a code and fixing them. Debugging is equally relevant in an organization’s developmental environment. The trickiest part of a developer’s job is fixing the errors, and in an organization, there is not much help on that aspect. Therefore, one must equip themselves to be self-dependent to fix their coding errors on their own.

Association with Student and Professional Learning Community

There are several learning communities for students and professionals where top professionals and tutors provide valuable guidance and help understand the problems and provide insights into the industry and critical resources. Some of the communities are StackOverflow and CodeProject.

Top 10 Online C++ Certification Courses

Certificate courses on C++ help aspirants gain mastery over complex problem solving using the C++ programming language. Most of the top software engineers in multinational companies begin as C++ developers at some point in their careers.

The certification courses ensure that the aspirants build their programming skills and the analytical ability to become top-level programmers. Upon completing a comprehensive certificate course, the students are fully aware of the fundamentals, knowledge of working on real-world projects, and the skills required by software engineers to solve complex problems by designing algorithms, testing, and debugging the program’s developmental environment.

Some of the top courses on the e-learning platform for C++ are highlighted in the following section.

1. Coding for Everyone: C and C++ Specialization – Coursera

Coding for Everyone- C and C++ Specialization – Coursera

The course is offered by the University of California, Santa Cruz on the Coursera platform. The course follows a beginner to programmer path and provides a deep understanding of computer programming by building coding skills. It is divided into four modules-two for C language and the remaining two for C++.

The basics of programming in C are introduced to make it easier to grab the advanced concepts of C++ semantics and syntax. The course aims to build upon the skills to master high-level problems using algorithms for complex tasks through the projects. The course’s takeaway is a comprehensive understanding of coding, debugging, and complex problem-solving with C and C++ programming knowledge. The course curriculum includes the following:

  • C for Everyone: Programming Fundamentals
  • C for Everyone: Structured Programming
  • C ++ for C Programmers-Part A
  • C++ for C Programmers- Part B

Instructor: Ira Pohl

Level: Beginner

Video Lectures: NA

User Review: 4.4/5

Price: Free Enrollment (Additional charges may apply for certification)

2. Learn C++ – Codecademy

The course is available on Codecademy.  It is highly beneficial for absolute beginners. There are no prerequisites for the course. The takeaways from the course include a comprehensive understanding of the fundamental programming concepts and a look at some critical advanced C++ topics required for development today.

The learners will also get hands-on experience working on projects to display block letters, calculating the dog years, and a program that solves quadratic equations. The course modules are:

  • Hello World
  • Writing, compiling, and executing the first C++ program.
  • Variables
  • Introduction to variables and basic data types.
  • Conditionals and Logic
  • Learning how to use conditionals and logic to build programs for arriving at different outcomes.
  • Loops
  • Uses of loops in programming.
  • Loop Challenge Project
  • Vectors
  • Using vectors to keep the data organized.
  • Functions
  • Using functions to write flexible, modular, and reusable codes.
  • Functions Challenge Project
  • Classes and Objects
  • Using classes and objects to build scalable and modular programs.
  • References and Pointers
  • Learning to use powerful features of C++ such as references and pointers for directly manipulating the memory.

Instructor: Industry Experts

Level: Beginner

Video Lectures: NA

User Review: NA

Price: Price available on sign up

3. C++ Fundamentals Including C++ 17 – Pluralsight

The course is available on Pluralsight. In this course, the learners will write simple console applications and proceed to more advanced programming such as writing platform-specific codes using C++. 

First, the learners will be introduced to the basic syntax- declaring variables, classes, building expressions using operators and functions and templates, indirection and polymorphism.

Additionally, the learners will explore syntax additions from C++11, C++14, and C++17 with modern compilers for running the examples. Finally, the learners will have a thorough understanding of modern C++ in a developmental environment, using the standard library and idioms with the likes of resource acquisitions to reduce the memory management effort during developmental tasks.

At the end of the course, the learners will be comfortable with reading and writing modern C++, similar to advanced C++ developers in the industry today. The course modules comprise of the following:

Course Overview

  • Introduction
  • Why C++?
  • The Standard Library
  • Modern C++
  • Standardization


  • What do you need?
  • Building and popular tools
  • Visual Studio
  • Kinds of applications
  • Demo
  • Console application structure
  • Creating a project

Variables and Fundamental Types

  • Language Basics-Variables
  • Fundamental Types
  • Auto and Casting
  • Demo

User-Defined Types

  • Building
  • Classes and objects
  • Constructors
  • Scope
  • Struct and Namespace
  • Inheritance
  • Enumerations and the Preprocessor
  • Demo of the concepts covered

Flow of Control

  • Introduction
  • If, While and For
  • Switch
  • Immediate If
  • Demo


  • Free Functions
  • Member functions
  • Understanding error messages
  • Cause of error messages
  • Demo


  • Arithmetic operators
  • Comparisons
  • Bitwise operators
  • Operator overloading
  • Writing and overload
  • Demo


  • Template functions
  • Template classes
  • Template specialization
  • Demo


  • Pointers and references
  • Const
  • Const after or before?
  • Const with indirection
  • Demo

Memory Management

  • The Freestore
  • Manual memory management
  • Easy memory management
  • Standard library and intelligent pointers
  • Demo

Indirection and Inheritance

  • References and inheritance
  • Pointers and inheritance
  • Slicing
  • Casting and indirection
  • Demo

Instructor: Kate Gregory

Level: Beginner

Video Lectures: 114 video lectures

User Review: 4.7/5

Price: Free 10-day trial (Charges applicable after trial period. Price available on sign up)

4. Introduction to Programming in C++ – edX

Introduction to Programming in C++ – edX

The  8-week course is offered by New York University (NYU) on the edX platform. The course introduces the fundamentals and covers all the core concepts required to be a successful C++ developer in the industry. 

All the essential topics such as iteration, decision trees, branching, data types, and expression are covered in-depth with hands-on exercises.

The first module explores the concepts of programming and data structures, and it is advised to take up each module as per the order suggested for the course.

By the end of the course, the learners will be well aware of the concepts such as C++ assignments and their application in program development, basic C++ I/) operations, data and arithmetic operations, expressions using relational operators, logical operators, and the selection and repetition statements. The course modules are:

Week 1 – Hello World

  • First C++ Program

Week 2 – Data Types and Expressions

  • Type Casting
  • Literals
  • The String Class
  • Boolean Expression

Week 3 – Data Type Labs

Week 4 – Branching Statements

  • Absolute Value
  • One-Way if Statements
  • Switch Statements

Week 5 – Branching Labs

Week 6 – Iterative Statements & Functions

  • Syntax
  • Pigeonhole principle
  • Function definition
  • Domain, target, Range
  • One-to-one and onto functions
  • Composition of function
  • Inverse function

Week 7 – Iteration Labs

Week 8 – Final Exam


Instructor: Aspen Olmsted and Itay Tal

Level: Intermediate

Video Lectures: NA

User Review: NA

Price: Free Enrollment (Additional $334 for certification)

5. Become a C++ Developer –

Nanodegree Program – Udacity

The course is available on the Udacity platform. The nano degree program is equivalent to a specialization course on other platforms. In this course, the learners get exposure to real-world projects to build their hands-on experience.

The projects include building a route planner using Openstreet map data, writing a process monitor program for the computer and implementing intelligent pointers, and building a multi-threaded traffic simulator.

At the end of the course, the learners will build strong programming skills and code their C++ applications. The prerequisite of the course includes intermediate knowledge of any programming language. Additional offerings of this course include technical mentor support, project review, and feedback from experienced reviewers from the industry. The course modules include:

  • C++ Foundations
  • Object-Oriented Programming
  • Memory Management
  • Concurrency
  • Capstone project

Instructor: David Silver, Stephen Welch, and Andreas Haja

Level: Intermediate

Video Lectures: NA

User Review: 4.6/5

Price: Monthly- $310 Approximately, and Yearly- $1064 Approximately

6. Beginning C++ Programming: From Beginner to Beyond – Udemy

Beginning C++ Programming- From Beginner to Beyond – Udemy

The course is available on Udemy. This course is suitable for learners looking to gain entry into the field of software development. The learners will be able to build their knowledge of industry practices for development.

This course covers all the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of C++ programming.  The course explores the essentials of modern C++ object-oriented programming and the STL skills required for games, systems, and app development. Some of the critical areas covered in this program include:

  • Looping with while, do/while for, range-based for statements, and recursion
  • Performing calculations and displaying results
  • Functions
  • Pointers
  • Using existing classes and creating objects
  • Creating your classes
  • Using Basic Standard Template Library classes such as Vector
  • Constructors and Destructors
  • Copy and Move semantics, including Copy constructors, move constructors, and copy and move assignment
  • How to overload operators
  • Using inheritance and class hierarchies
  • Using Polymorphic functions and dynamic binding
  • Using smart pointers
  • Using stream I/O
  • An introduction to the C++ STL
  • An introduction to Exception Handling
  • The course curriculum has the following modules:
  • Introduction
  • Installation and Setup
  • Getting started
  • Structure of a C++ program
  • Variables and Constants
  • Arrays and Vectors
  • Statement and Operators
  • Controlling Program Flow
  • Characters and Strings
  • Functions
  • Pointers and References
  • OOP-Classes and Objects
  • Operator Overloading
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • Smart Pointers
  • I/O and Streams
  • The Standard Template Library
  • Source Code

Instructor: Tim Buchalka’s Learn Programming Academy and Dr. Frank Mitropoulos

Level: Beginner/Intermediate

Video Lectures: 277 video lectures

User Review: 4.6/5

Price: $8.9 Approximately (Pricing may vary as per the region)

7. C++ Advanced Topics – LinkedIn Learning

C++ Advanced Topics – LinkedIn Learning

The course is designed to cover complex aspects of the core programming language and intelligent pointers to move semantics. The learners will gain a strong understanding of the concepts such as classes and objects and class inheritance.

Additionally, the concepts of intelligent pointers and their uses for managing memory allocation are covered in-depth. The course also explores copy and swap idiom, lambda functions, working with unit test libraries, and creating a custom string library. All of the concepts are covered with practical implementations to gain a deeper understanding of the concepts. The course modules are:


Advanced programming with C++

Classes and Objects

  • Defining a class
  • Data members
  • Function members
  • Constructors and destructors
  • Explicit constructors
  • Namespaces
  • Self-referencing pointer
  • Operator overloads
  • Non-member operators
  • Conversion operators
  • Increment and decrement operators
  • Allocating object memory
  • Functions

Class Inheritance

  • Overview
  • Simple inheritance
  • Accessing the base class
  • Friendship and multiple inheritances
  • Polymorphism

Smart Pointers

  • Why smart pointers?
  • Unique Pointer
  • Shared Pointer
  • Weak Pointer
  • Using a custom delete
  • Choosing a smart pointer

Move Semantics

  • What is move semantics?
  • Understanding Lvalues and rvalues
  • Using std:: move
  • The move constructor
  • The move assignment operator
  • The copy and swap idiom
  • Rule of five

Lambda Functions

  • Lambda syntax
  • Captures
  • Polymorphic lambdas

The C Preprocessor

  • About the preprocessor
  • Macros as constants
  • Including files
  • Conditional compilation
  • Defining macros
  • Including files only once

Unit Tests

  • The importance of unit tests
  • A unit test library

Custom String Library

  • Why non-STL strings?
  • Overview of BOWstring
  • Constructors
  • Memory management
  • Operators
  • Utility methods
  • Find and replace
  • Splitting strings
  • Using the BOWstring library


Instructor: Bill Weinman

Level: Advanced

Video Lectures: 55 video lectures

User Review: NA

Price: 1-Month free trial (Charges may apply after the trial period ends)

8. Mastering 4 Critical Skills Using C++17 – Udemy

Mastering 4 Critical Skills Using C++17 – Udemy

The course is available on the Udemy platform. This course is designed to build upon the basic to advanced modern C++ syntax and exposure to projects using modern C++ coding. It is among the highest-rated courses on the platform and builds problem-solving and project-building skills for learners. 

This course includes more than 6 projects and a strong emphasis on providing practical experience. The takeaways from the course include a complete understanding of critical concepts such as:

  • Solid understanding of programming concepts using C++
  • Fundamentals: Variables, Loops, Control Flow, Functions, Recursive Functions, Arrays
  • Advanced Topics: Pointers, STL, Templates, Headers, and Includes, Exception Handling, Compilation Process, Debugging
  • Object-Oriented Programming (OOP): Classes, Objects, Inheritance, Polymorphism, Operator Overloading
  • Modern Topics in C++11/C++14/C++17: Move Semantics, Perfect Forwarding, Variadic Template, Folding expressions, Smart Pointers, Lambda Expressions, Wrappers (Optional, Variant, Any), Uniform initialization, noexcept, Structured Binding, Nested namespaces, misc.
  • OOP: Member initializer, Defaulted and Deleted Functions, delegating constructors, Inheriting Constructors
  • STL: Forward list, Initializer list, Array, Unordered containers
  • Design: Several principles and patterns are embedded in the homework & projects
  • Algorithmic (problem-solving) and applications
  • Software design concerns.
  • Software Engineering & Design Patterns
  • Implementation of OOP concepts
  • Data Structure course and Algorithms
  • Use of C++ for frontend or backend
  • Insights into game development and embedded development.

Instructor: Dr. Mostafa Saad Ibrahim

Level: Advanced

Video Lectures: 356 video lectures

User Review: 4.8/5

Price: $50 Approximately (Charges may vary according to the region)

9. Complete Modern C++ (C++ 11/14/17) – Udemy

Complete Modern C++ (C++ 11:14:17) – Udemy

The course is offered on the Udemy platform. The course explores the concepts of C++ as an object-oriented language comprising modern features. In this course, the learners will experience working with both old and new C++ concepts with practical examples.

The course builds insights into building complex programs using classes, operators, overloading, composition, inheritance, and polymorphism as some of the advanced concepts. The prerequisite of the course includes the experience of working with a programming language. 


Instructor: Umar Lone

Level: Advanced

Video Lectures: 221 video lectures

User Review: 4.5/5

Price: $6.2 Approximately (Charges may vary according to the region)

10. Design Patterns in Modern C++ – Udemy

Design Patterns in Modern C++ – Udemy

The course is available on Udemy. It is designed for C++ developers and is an advanced course.  The course provides a comprehensive overview of design patterns in modern C++, emphasizing building the learners’ practical knowledge.

The course covers the latest versions of the C++ programming language, modern programming approaches, modern developer tools and pattern variations, and alternative approaches.

The learners will gain mastery in applying and recognizing design patterns, knowledge about the applicability and usability of design patterns, and refactor existing designs to use design patterns.  


Instructor: Dmitri Nesteruk

Level: Advanced

Video Lectures: 130 video lectures

User Review: 4.5/5

Price: $6.2 Approximately (Charges may vary according to the region)

Career Prospects for C++ Developers

With the advent of emerging technologies, many consider C++ to be outdated technology. However, it is untrue as the C++ developers command one of the highest salaries in the IT industry.

C++ programming provides a tremendous amount of functionality for low-level memory management, which is ideal for embedded systems or other forms of devices. Similarly, C++ is used for developing video games and software, and mobile applications. With a wide range of uses, it provides opportunities for C++ developers as:

  • Software Engineer
  • Electronic Engineer
  • DevOps Engineer
  • Game Developer
  • Software Development Manager
  • Application Engineer

Responsibilities of C++ Developer

C++ developers are primarily associated with creating codes that lay the foundation for software or are entirely involved in the developmental stages. C++ developers plan the developmental stage of the program based on the feasibility of the company’s requirements.

Additionally, C++ developers are also working on testing and debugging to ensure the smooth functioning of software or a program to enhance the user experience. Some of the top responsibilities of a C++ developer role include:

  • Managing the process of code releases and updates and associated plug-ins.
  • Implementation and the conception of a software solution as per the requirement.
  • Writing and analyzing codes for project development.
  • Documentation of relevant processes.
  • Improve the quality modules.
  • Identification of any possible bottlenecks.
  • Familiarity with templates in C++.
  • Understanding of embedded systems and their designing.
  • Providing automated scripts for testing purposes and using tools like Selenium IDE.
  • Ability to develop and manage desktop applications.
  • Using Java for managing shared network resources.
  • Using SSIS package for automating the ETL process.
  • Work with reporting with the use of SSRS.
  • Work on migrating data to clients and managing the SQL and database-related tasks for generating reports.
  • Provide configuration solutions for managing application settings related to desktop applications and the backend.
  • Modification of C++ programs for communication of data from the backend to the frontend of Java-based applications.
  • Analyzing existing applications and optimizing the performance.
  • SVN for version management purposes.
  • Ability to perform parallel testing when required.
  • Use of legacy containers.
  • Ability to perform automation testing using TestNG.
  • Implement C++ codes for server APIs.
  • Provide inputs in the product lifecycle management.
  • Work on JavaScript for providing client-side functionality on web pages.
  • Provide HTML and JavaScript functionality for web-based monitoring tasks.
  • Use of Git repository for modification of codes.
  • Using Python and C++ for standalone development tasks for the application server.
  • Coordinate with other teams and share codes through GitHub as a repository.

Salary Trends of C++ Developer Jobs

C++ is widely used across industries for various applications. Therefore, there is a high demand for C++ developers in the job industry. At the same time, it is already known that C++ is used for programming some of the top operating systems that people use today, namely Windows, macOS, and Linux.

Similarly, C++ has its implementation in various graphics-based applications, graphics-heavy applications such as games, and state-of-the-art technologies like computer vision and intelligent devices. This causes a demand for C++ developers across industries, mainly for applications.

According to Indeed, the average base salary for a C++ developer in the United States is $108,561, and it can vary and become higher based on certifications. Experience, educational background, and additional programming skills.

Entry-level C++ developer salary

As per PayScale, the entry-level C++ developer earns $66,058 per year.

Indeed.com Salary Stats

4-8 Years’ Experience: $108,000

8-12 Years: $115,000

12-16 Years: $120,000

16-20 Years: $125,000

20-24 Years: $130,000+

There are several additional benefits offered with the salary packages for senior roles in the company. Another factor that plays a crucial role in the amount of salary being offered is the location.

Certain cities offer a higher salary than the national average or industry trends due to its demand in the particular location and factors like cost of living. C++ developers who have additional knowledge about the hardware aspects alongside the software and programming skills are likely to be rewarded with higher salaries.

As per recent salary trends, 75% of C++ developers in the United States consider their salaries sufficient, considering the cost of living of the location. Some of the complementary skills for a C++ developer that is likely to draw higher salary packages are:

  • The knowledge of Android, OS X, iOS, Windows, and Linux operating systems as C++ is an essential factor of these operating systems, including mobile app development.
  • The familiarity of databases such as MySQL and MongoDB for the current generation of technologies and database requirements.
  • Well-equipped with the knowledge of memory management.
  • Familiarity with network-based concepts such as TCP/IP protocols.
  • Good command over continuous integration-related concepts.
  • Complete understanding of project management methodologies.
  • Familiarity with data structures and algorithms to work efficiently on complex problems.
  • A good understanding of software development lifecycle.
  • Proficiency with other programming languages like Java and Python.

Most Sought After Skills of a C++ Developer

  • Python (High Demand) -14.2%
  • Java (High Demand)- 9 %
  • C++ (High (Demand)- 8.6%
  • JavaScript (High Demand)- 5.7%
  • Machine Learning Algorithms (High Demand)-4.6%
  • Other Skills- 57.9%

High Demand

  • Windows 
  • GIT
  • Perl
  • Data Structures
  • STL 
  • Hardware
  • Software Development
  • Code Reviews 
  • SQL 

Moderate Demand

  • Version Control
  • Scrum
  • API
  • Design Patterns
  • Jenkins
  • Jira
  • OS
  • Http
  • Business Process
  • SVN
  • Multithreading

Low Demand

  • XML
  • GitHub
  • QA
  • User Interface
  • Unix
  • Linux
  • Android
  • GUI
  • Unit Tests
  • TCP/IP
  • SDLC
  • GDB and COM
  • Server Side
  • UML
  • UDP
  • Management System
  • POS

Although the skills are highlighted as highly demanded or low in demand, it is crucial to understand that these skills fluctuate as per market requirements.

While some skills are listed as low in demand, they might rise up to a higher point at a certain period. Hence, it is essential to be equipped with as many skills as possible.

Another critical aspect is the communication skills as a C++ developer is constantly required to communicate and pass the ideas across to the team and clients to explain the outcome or a possible result of a specific approach.

Preferred Qualification (Besides Educational Background) for C++ Developers

  • Certified Scrum Master
  • CIRO
  • CompTIA Security+
  • RHCE
  • MCP
  • CompTIA Linux+
  • CEH
  • Six Sigma Certification

Additional Technologies to Master for C++ Developer

C++ developers are constantly working on a wide range of tools for software development. Such tools can range from high-level languages such as Node.js, Python to code management with the likes of Git and SVN. Additionally, the working knowledge of XML and NoSQL is considered a big plus.


Essential Interview Questions for C++ Developer Jobs

Define C++?

C++ is an object-oriented programming language that is a superset of the C programming language. It also comprises additional features as opposed to the C language.

Difference between Reference and Pointer?

Reference is a temporary variable, and it can be used directly to access the value. Also, once a reference variable is assigned, it leaves no possibility of reassigning it with another address value. Additionally, a null value can’t be assigned to the reference variable.

On the other hand, Pointer is a variable that stores the address of a variable. Pointer variables need an indirection operator to access the values. It is an independent variable. Therefore, it can be reassigned to point to other objects. Also, a null value can be assigned to the reference variable.

What are the various types of OOPS concepts in C++?

The various OOPs concepts are class, object, polymorphism, inheritance, data binding, encapsulation, and abstraction, forming the entire OOPS concepts.

What is Namespace in C++?

Namespace is a logical part of the code which is used to stop any naming conflict. It is also used to define the scope of where the identifiers such as variable or class and function are declared. The primary purpose of namespace is to remove ambiguity which can occur when different tasks consist of the same name.

Define std in C++?

Std is a default namespace standard that is used in C++ programming.

What is a class template?

A class template is a name assigned to a generic class.

What is Encapsulation?

Encapsulation is a technique for binding the data and the functions that are acting on data in a class. No outside method can access the data, and only the member function can access the data if the data member is kept private.

Define Polymorphism. How many types of polymorphisms are there?

Polymorphism signifies that more than one function with the same function name can exist with different functionalities. There are two types of which are-compile time polymorphism and run-time polymorphism.

What is a Friend function?

The friend function is like a friend of the class. It is mainly used for accessing private and protected members of the class. However, the friend function is not considered the class member but needs to be listed in the class definition.

Also, the non-member function cannot access the private data of the class. In specific scenarios, the non-member function requires access to the data, and that is where the friend function is used to access the private data of the class.

Define overloading in C++?

In a specific instance, when a single object behaves in multiple ways, it is termed overloading. A single object comprises the same name but with different versions of the same function. Also, C++ allows specifying more than one definition for a function name or an operator within the same scope.

This phenomenon is called function overloading and operator overloading. Operator overloading is used for functions such as member function, non-member function, and friend function.

On the other hand, function overloading occurs as a compile-time polymorphism that defines a family of functions with similar names. However, the function would perform various operations based on the argument list in the function call. Besides, the function that is to be invoked depends on the number of arguments and their type in the argument list.


Learning a C++ programming language is an excellent platform to bolster the knowledge base and begin a developer career. The proficiency of C++ becomes handy to master other high-level programming languages with ease.

Besides, C++ developers are among the ones that have a solid understanding of the programming environment. C++ developers are also considered an integral part of an organization as they collaborate with stakeholders to determine the application requisites or carve the path for software deployment and maintenance of the software systems.

Additionally, C++ developers are at the front-line of operations in an organization as they interact with clients to understand the requirements to devise a strategy to approach the application development.

Similarly, they are continually associated with software optimization and innovation-related tasks. C++ developers continue to be among the highest paid jobs in the industry.

For those speculating on if the language will survive in the past paced technical advancements, it is evident as the C++ programming language is thriving despite the recent innovations and development of other programming languages.

It can be rightly termed as the programming language that forms the strong foundations to master the newer programming languages.

Another critical factor in opting for a C++ developer career is its longevity in the industry which states that this programming language and the job roles will continue to evolve and exist in the long run. Therefore, it is the most opportune moment for all the aspirants to equip themselves with C++ language skills and embark on a successful career path as a software developer.

Apple’s iCloud Drive is a cloud storage service that’s ideal for Apple users. Although not as good as Google Drive or Microsoft OneDrive, there’s still a lot to see here. As with all Apple products, integration is flawless, ensuring a rich user experience.

What Is Apple iCloud Drive?

Apple’s iCloud Drive is a cloud-based file storage and syncing service that is mostly designed for use with other Apple devices and apps. However, it can still be used as a web browser or with non-Apple computers. iCloud Drive is simply the folder-syncing part of Apple’s cloud service, iCloud.

Once you start up iCloud Drive, all of your files get automatically synced to any and all devices that are signed in using your account. This includes all iOS devices and Macs, as well as Windows PCs.

The only exception is Android. So if you’re hoping to incorporate iCloud Drive with, say, your Samsung smartphone, you’ll have to use a different cloud service. Apple’s iCloud Drive allows you to make folders for all of your files while providing online storage for Apple’s many productivity apps, such as Keynote, Pages, and Numbers.

What’s more, iCloud Drive is incredibly well-designed. Although it’s not quite as capable as Google Drive or Microsoft OneDrive, iCloud Drive is still a breeze to use, especially if you’re used to Apple’s operations.

So, who is iCloud Drive for? Well, if you regularly use an Apple device and are reasonably versed in Apple’s office productivity apps, you’ll find iCloud Drive to be an appealing companion. This is largely due to the fact that it integrates so well with them. Plus, it supports all of Apple’s platforms.

Its integration with Apple’s robust ecosystem is near-perfect. So much so that you may have used it and not even known it. And as mentioned, you can use iCloud Drive reasonably well with Windows-based computers and on the internet.

But again, Android users will be better off sticking with Google’s Drive or Microsoft’s OneDrive. You’ll get many of the same features anyway, so it’s not like you’ll be missing anything. Plus, most agree that those two offer more than iCloud Drive.

Ease of Use

You need at least Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite or iOS 8 to use Apple iCloud Drive. And if you’re on a PC, you’ll need at least Windows 7. And because iCloud Drive apps aren’t offered on Android, Apple’s cloud service is less versatile than Microsoft OneDrive or Google Drive.

If you’re wanting to set up iCloud Drive on a Windows PC, doing so is as easy as any other syncing service. First, you’ll need to download and install the iCloud control panel app. This serves to let you create iCloud Drive and Photos folders under your computer’s main user folder. Once installed, you’re ready to start syncing. Therefore, you’ll have to create an Apple ID account or sign in to an existing one.

Whenever you install iCloud Drive, you’ll get a system tray icon, as well. From there, you’ll be able to access and open special folders. Please note that these are made up of custom icons, not typical folder-sharing icons.

Any files that you choose to add to your new iCloud Drive folder (or subfolders) will now appear on all other iOS devices and computers that have iCloud Drive enabled (you will, however, have to be signed in to be detected).

If you own a Mac, it’s important to note that iCloud functions slightly differently. As such, it isn’t quite as straightforward as other popular syncing services. However, since iCloud Drive is part of the operating system, you don’t have to download or install any apps.

If you’re running a new Mac, its initial setup activation will automatically walk you through the configuration of iCloud. But if you need to enable it on its own, you’ll have to go into the System Preferences, then choose iCloud. From there, you’ll have to sign in with your Apple ID and select “iCloud Drive.”

After doing this, you will see an icon under Favorites in Finder. This is a lot like a connected drive or folder. What’s more, iCloud Drive can also act as a backup. To use it as such, simply navigate to Preferences and check “Desktop & Documents.”

From there, you’ll be able to drag files to your new iCloud Drive, manage the local documents folder, and create sub-folders. And if you use Keynote or other Apple apps that make use of iCloud Drive for its storage, you will see associated folders have appeared, as well.

The only downside of this is that you can’t see iPhone backups and other data that might be using your storage. As such, you don’t get an accurate reading of how much space is truly left. You’ll have to go elsewhere to find this information. Fortunately, it isn’t too difficult.

Over at iCloud’s System Preferences, you can see exactly how much storage is being used and where. To do this, simply hover your mouse over any storage progress bar (with the colored blocks). From there, you’ll be able to see what’s using your iCloud Drive storage.

Once you’re in this setting, you’ll also be able to choose whether to include data that are associated with other programs that are presently installed on your system. This is ideal for things like Preview, TextEdit, QuickTime Player, and so on.

Apple Photos is handled separately. This is due to it being under iCloud rather than iCloud Drive. That said, you can always upload your images directly to iCloud Drive. However, they will still use up the same storage.

Understandably, some users get confused over the differences between iCloud Drive and standard iCloud. To simplify things, Photos, Notes, Reminders, and Contacts all get backed up to iCloud. Your data from TextEdit, Mail, and iMovie is located in iCloud Drive.

With that said, there is a problem with how fast your free allotment gets eaten up. This is especially the case if you’ve chosen to sync your Mac and iPhone. And it won’t take long for additional storage alert messages to start showing up on your computer and phone.

You will therefore need to choose to stop device backups or upgrade to one of the other storage plans. As you can imagine, you’re not given many other viable solutions to combat this storage limit concern. And as such, you’re pretty much forced to take Apple up on its upgrade option.

Another notable absence is the ability to save versions. This becomes especially noticeable when you compare iCloud Drive to Google Drive or any other cloud storage solution services. You’ll almost always find a way to save versions, but not so with iCloud Drive.


One thing that is likely to appeal to many users is the fact that iCloud isn’t weighed down with a bunch of useless features. Quite the opposite is true, in fact. Apple iCloud instead focuses on giving its users a relatively streamlined cloud service.

With that said, there are likely to be just as many users looking for something with more features. If that’s your preference, you might want to look into Google Suite.

Now, although Apple iCloud isn’t exactly robust, it has the uncanny ability to work so well that you never even notice it’s there. And if you’re a Windows user, you get a handy desktop client that lets you sync folders and files from your computer’s desktop.

Not only that, but there’s also a nice web-based interface that gives you even more options to work with, as well as the ability to use file sharing with other users.

As with all Apple products, iCloud excels in its security. With it, you’re offered two-factor authentication during log-in for greater protection. You can also use it to store a litany of different file types, including DOCX, PSD, PDF, and PPTX.

As touched on earlier, the only drawback here is the fact that there isn’t Android support. Sure, there’s a serious lack of advanced features to mess around with, but Android support would have been a nice addition.

So you won’t find an app available for iCloud Drive on Google’s Play Store. Furthermore, trying to use iCloud’s web interface on mobile devices is an exercise in patience. So for many users, that’s out, too.


Whether or not you’ve noticed it, if you’re an Apple user, iCloud is a core feature that comes built into your operating system. As such, your folders, files, and app data is automatically synced with the cloud. You don’t have to do anything special to get this to happen, as it’s all part of the Apple experience.

There also isn’t a separate iCloud app to be found on Apple devices. This is because it’s ingeniously worked into the cloud ecosystem. Moreover, you’ll also find iCloud Drive to be a part of your system. As a section within iCloud, you can use Drive to store whatever files and folders you choose. And you can do it in just about any format.

If you’re a Windows user, you don’t be able to sync just any file you please to iCloud. You can, however, use the previously mentioned desktop client to sync to the cloud. Once again, Android users are left out in the cold here, as there isn’t an official app or client.

Instead, you have to navigate via the web interface, which again, is a cumbersome, tiring venture that is better left alone than attempted. Seriously, there are many other cloud storage service options available that will serve you well.

In fact, better than iCloud Drive. Check out Google Drive, Microsoft OneDrive, or any of the other available cloud storage services. You won’t be disappointed.

Apple iCloud Drive Pricing Overview

If you’re an existing Apple user with an iOS device, Apple iCloud initially gives you 5GB of free storage. In fact, this is the exact same amount of storage that you get with Microsoft OneDrive as a new user.

Keep in mind that other iCloud services are counted against your 5GB allotment, not just your iCloud Drive files. This includes any of your photos, as well as backups of your Apple devices, such as an iPhone or iPad.

If you don’t have an Apple device and you want to use iCloud Drive, you only get 1GB of free storage. If you’re like most people, 1GB isn’t going to get you anywhere. As such, you’ll need to upgrade your basic plan to one of the paid monthly plan accounts.

These plans start at 50GB for $0.99 a month. If you need more storage than 50GB, $2.99 will bump you up to 200GB. Finally, for $9.99 a month, you get 2TB of storage space. By comparison, Google’s One pricing plans mirror Apple’s pricing structure.

Ironically, Apple recently introduced “Apple One.” Sound familiar? This service essentially acts just like Google One, where all of the pricing plans are lumped under one umbrella. And in case you were wondering, Google One has been out since 2018, whereas Apple One rolled out in 2020.

Under Apple One, you get access to Apple’s other digital media services, like Apple Music, Apple TV+, or Arcade. Plans start at $14.95 a month for a single user. With it, you get all of the aforementioned services, plus 50GB of iCloud storage. Honestly, one would expect to get more than just 50GB for $15 a month.

If you want the Apple One Family Plan, it’ll cost you an extra $5 a month. So for $19.95 per month, you’ll be able to share with five users, along with 200GB storage. And then there’s the Premier plan, which costs $29.95 a month.

Things look better here, as you get 2TB of storage, as well as access to Apple Fitness+ and News+. It’s worth noting that these plans offer decent savings when you compare them to purchasing each service separately.

However, you don’t get a discount for signing up on an annual plan. If you’re familiar with other cloud storage services like Google Drive, you do get this discount. It’s another example of Apple’s iCloud Drive not quite measuring up to the competition.

That said, iCloud Drive is still fairly comparable to Google’s Drive and Microsoft’s OneDrive, largely because all three are juggernauts in the cloud storage industry.

For comparison, Google Drive starts you off with 15GB of storage. Although what actually counts against your data allotment can be tricky at times, it’s still leaps and bounds better than Apple’s 1GB and 5GB offerings.

Security and Privacy

As mentioned, Apple’s security and privacy are incredible. Although there isn’t client-side encryption, the rest of the protection and privacy features are world-class and better than just about any other service.

Any data that you have stored on the cloud is encrypted, with iCloud featuring two-factor authentication. This is a must-have security measure for anyone who values their privacy. If you choose to activate this option, you’ll not only have to enter your user name and password to log in but also a special real-time code that Apple sends to your registered device.

Without it, you won’t be able to access your account. It’s highly recommended that you activate this feature and keep it turned on at all times.

Customer Support

Apple iCloud gives you access to a comprehensive support system. It is complete with an extensive knowledge base that is chock-full of helpful information. You can also access Apple’s community forum and call into customer service (available during regular working hours).

If you’re a Premium member, you get access to even more features, such as online chat support and a 24-hour hotline. Being a Premium member just means you own an Apple device, such as a Mac, iPhone, or iPad.


The user interface is your typical Apple fare, which is to say excellent. iCloud Drive is a breeze to navigate and use, making it ideal for those who are unfamiliar with cloud service in general and need to learn the ropes.

And like other Apple products, integration is seamless. Regardless of the Apple device you’re using, you’re going to find that iCloud Drive is a cinch to use. So much so that you might not even know it’s there.


The free storage that is offered is pretty paltry compared to the competition. And if you’re not an Apple user with an Apple device, it’s even worse (only 1GB).

There’s still no Android support to speak of. Yes, you can always use Apple’s web interface, but it’s virtually unusable on a small screen.


There are a plethora of alternatives available for you to try out, especially if you’re an Android user. Google Drive is a phenomenal cloud storage service, with lots of goodies and features that you won’t find on Apple iCloud Drive.

And if you’re a Windows user, Microsoft OneDrive works incredibly well for a comprehensive cloud storage experience. Just as files app options from Apple work flawlessly with Apple devices, the same is true for Windows and OneDrive.

Another option is IDrive. This is a cloud storage solution that offers cheap service and tons of features to keep you busy. There are many other apps worth checking out, but these are the top three.


Is iCloud Drive any good?

If you’re an avid Apple user, yes. There’s enough here to ensure a seamless user experience, although those looking for robust features might want to look elsewhere.

Is iCloud Drive reliable?

Quite so. Apple excels at delivering working software with little hiccups along the way. As an Apple user, you’re going to feel right at home with iCloud Drive. Even newcomers will appreciate the reliability and ease-of-use of iCloud Drive. It’s the perfect service to test the waters of cloud storage, although the free storage offerings are a bit paltry.

How safe is iCloud Drive?

Very much so. Apple dominates in the security category. When you use any Apple product or service, iCloud Drive included, you can trust that you’re getting a safe experience that protects your privacy.

In fact, iCloud Drive is safer than many other cloud storage services. If you’re at all concerned with your privacy and data, you can’t go wrong with choosing iCloud Drive.

Is Apple iCloud Drive free?

Yes. As a new user who already owns an Apple device, you get 5GB of free storage. But if you’re not an Apple user and you don’t own an Apple device, you only get 1GB of free storage.

How much does iCloud Drive cost?

For $0.99 a month, you get 50GB of cloud storage. For $2.99 a month, you can bump that up to 200GB of cloud storage. If you need even more storage space on the cloud, $9.99 a month will get you 2TB.

This is comparable to Google Drive and many other cloud storage solutions. So if you’re looking for the best deal on cloud storage, it’s about the same across the board as the competition.

Is it worth paying for Apple iCloud storage?

As long as you’re already an existing Apple device user, Apple iCloud Drive is a viable option. You’ll find that it works seamlessly with other Apple platforms, giving you a rich user experience that you barely even notice is there.

However, non-Apple users can find better options for their needs. Although the pricing is about the same, you’ll get many other features not offered on iCloud Drive. So if you’re one who appreciates having a lot of features to tinker around with, Google Drive or Microsoft OneDrive will serve you well with plenty to keep you busy.

Are iCloud and iCloud Drive the same thing?

iCloud Drive is the files and folder subset of iCloud.