If you fancy a career in software development then you’ve chosen an extremely popular, rewarding and competitive industry. Demand for software developers has never been higher and job prospects for the right people are incredibly positive. It is a field that is constantly evolving as technology continues to progress apace and so making sure you have relevant, up to date qualifications is crucial. 

Get it right and you can look forward to a career that is both satisfying and financially well rewarded. With many areas of specialism on offer, you can work towards finding your own niche and achieve true career satisfaction.

What is a software developer?

Software developers are the creators behind computer programs of all kinds. From apps for your Smartphone and those highly addictive computer games to programs that help us do our daily work and that can even turn on the oven for our evening meal; the technology behind all these things has been created by software developers.

It isn’t hard to see why software development is such an in-demand career when you consider its ever-increasing impact on everyday life.

Software development is a huge field but can be broken down into a number of different categories, depending on where you see your skills best utilized or where your interests lie. Most people become more specialized as their experience grows and they have a greater understanding of the industry. 

Systems software developers develop and implement applications and programs for backend processing systems used in businesses and organizations, whilst a web developer specializes in the development of web applications using client-server models.

Mobile development involves creating software applications for mobile devices such as mobile phones and test automation developers design and write programs that run automated tests on new or existing software.

Other related jobs include technical author, information scientist, multimedia programmer, data visualization analyst, systems analyst, operational researcher and information technology / software trainer.

What does a software developer do?

The creation of software applications involves the writing of code and so its subsequent development would be overseen by a software engineer or developer. Their work could involve analyzing the needs of the end user whether for an individual or an organization, and then creating, testing and developing the software to satisfy that need.

These applications can range from providing software solutions to a specific problem, to offering some form of entertainment, or just making life easier for the client.

Once the developer has outlined the software, they would then create flowcharts to map out each step of the software development process. This offers clear instruction to the programmer on how to write the correct code for the program or app.

Related duties of a software developer, engineer or programmer involve future proofing the software for upgrades and enhancements which might become necessary in the future and collaborating with other specialists to guarantee best value and quality from the program.

What skills are needed?

A good balance of hard and soft skills is necessary to become a successful software developer. Don’t be fooled into thinking a software developer is simply sat in front of a computer working their magic. There is much more to the role than that and it is one that requires considerable collaboration, creativity and organization. 

Having a comprehensive selection of skills means the developer can take on the complete software development process which will put them in an extremely attractive position when it comes to their job search.

Soft skills: Problem solving & analytical skills

One of the most important skills required as a software developer is the ability to analyze and solve problems. Many programs exist purely to solve an issue or problem for the end user.

Software engineers also have to be able to identify and isolate problems and bugs within computer programs. Enjoying getting to grip with solving problems and seeing them through to the end are helpful attributes to possess as a software developer.


Coming up with new programs, games or apps can be key abilities to pursuing a career in software development. This requires the ability to come up with innovative and cutting-edge ideas so being open, creative and up to date with current trends can go a long way to help you in the tech industry. If you have a genuine interest in and a love of gadgets and technology, then you are all set for a lifelong career in software development.

Communication & teamwork

Working with clients, end users and other software experts, enables the developer to come up with the best product possible, and so the ability to communicate effectively can be extremely helpful to improving your career prospects. 

Successful collaboration can greatly help with your job prospects. Although jobs in the tech industry are often seen as being solitary, in order to be truly successful in this area, working and communicating with others is vital.

Time management

The ability to manage time efficiently is very important to being a successful software developer. Software applications have to go through various stages before completion, so there are often strict deadlines and targets to work to. It is good to be able to show that you can produce effective results on time and on budget.

Hard skills 

Software development is a complex and highly technical industry and so it goes without saying that in order to pursue a successful career in this field, you will need specific technical and theoretical knowledge. 

Computer programs are effectively written in another language and so in order to be able to develop programs for a living, you would be required to be fluent in one or more of these computer languages. Choosing the right language can feel like an impossible choice because there are so many out there. Unless you are looking to specialize in a particular area of software straight away, then there are a few more obvious languages which might be a good place for you to start. 

These include Java, JavaScript, Python, SQL, Go, Swift, Git, PHP and C++, but there are many, many more!

The best and most effective way into a career in software development is to get a degree in a software related subject such as computer science, data science, software engineering, information technology or some universities now even run their own software development degree courses. If you have a university degree with focus on software engineering principles with sufficient industry experience, then for sure you may be offered a job opportunity by an organization to run their software development process smoothly and deliver high quality applications.

It is possible to follow a career in software development without a degree, but you would definitely still need to undertake some kind of professional course in a related topic and gain practical experience, in order to progress up the career ladder.

A gateway into a career in software development is to take an online course in software development or computer programming, but with so many to choose from it can be hard to know where to begin.

What online platforms are there?

Just like when you’re buying a car – you wouldn’t buy the first car you see – you shop around. The same is true with providers of software training courses. The choice can seem positively overwhelming to begin with, but we’ve done the hard work for you and researched some of the top providers of courses on software development. This isn’t an exhaustive guide by any means, but it gives a useful overview of the different types and levels of courses available. 

It is possible to combine a number of different courses into one learning track to give yourself a more rounded selection of skills. The combination of courses you choose to take depends entirely on the area in which you are looking to work. Software development can be extremely specialized, so it is well worth doing your research into what exactly is required for your chosen field before you commit to any courses on any particular online platform.


This US based online learning platform offers free coding in 12 different programming languages. As well as the free courses, you have the option of paying a subscription to upgrade your course and you can receive a fully personalized learning plan. 

At the end of the course, you receive an individual certificate which although it isn’t recognized as a formal professional qualification, it would certainly offer a potential employer evidence that you have knowledge of a particular programming language. The courses are popular because of their easy to understand format and are great entry level courses for absolute beginners.

Because Codecademy specializes in offering technology-related online courses, it means it can offer a healthy selection of relevant learning options. In addition to the coding courses, Codecademy also provides courses in web development, data science, computer science, machine learning, code foundations and web design.


This works as what is known as an MOOC (massive open online course) and so offers access to a vast array of online courses, in partnership with leading educational organizations. Some courses are free and some are paid for and range from basic beginners’ courses to micro-bachelors and micro-masters degrees. Because courses are accredited, this means that the certificates of completion will go a long way to show potential employers on your resume that you know your stuff.

With more than 2,500 courses on offer the choice is great and includes computer science, software engineering and software development. 

The beauty of signing up with edX is that there are no prerequisite qualifications or experience needed, so unlike many universities and colleges, it offers access for everyone no matter what level they are at. Courses are self-paced so can be fitted in around other commitments, again adding to an overall sense of inclusion.

Courses are set up in unique blocks with students given weekly targets including videos and interactive learning exercises.


Offering literally thousands of online courses, Coursera is another MOOC like edX, but where it differs is in the sheer choice of courses it offers. From degree courses to professional qualifications to specialized Coursera courses, the possibilities are endless. The organization has joined forces with some of the most prestigious educational establishments from around the world, so a qualification from Coursera is going to pack a punch.

Coursera is able to offer a unique collection of courses which can last between four and 12 weeks. Most will involve a few hours of video lectures a week with other course content including assignments, projects, weekly exercises and quizzes.

Taking a course with Coursera means you have access to college-level guidance from professors based at some of the world’s most renowned and accredited educational organizations. With more than 4,000 courses available partnered with over 200 universities from 29 countries around the world, this really is the crème de la crème of online course providers.

Software development courses available on Coursera include Master of Computer Science, Master of Computing and IT, Bachelor of Science in Computer Science, Certificate in Applied Data Science, IBM Full Stack Cloud Development and Python for Everybody, to name just a few.


One of the most popular learning platforms in the world with online presence, Udemy has more than 35m students who can choose from more than 1,000 courses. It is most well-known for its courses in IT and business, making it the perfect platform to choose if you are looking for an IT related course. 

Its top IT courses include Complete Java Masterclass, Complete Python Bootcamp, Web Developer Bootcamp, Beginning C++ Programming, Complete JavaScript Course, Complete Node.js Developer Course – the list goes on! Without doubt, Udemy has the largest marketplace of courses to select from.

Users talk about the benefits of its technical features, and the beauty of a course with Udemy, is that its content is available for life so you can go back and revisit information time and time again. You are also given the option of ‘trying before you buy’ which is a really good feature.

Course content includes a good combination of videos, text and audio lectures, giving students a well-balanced and user friendly courses.


Relatively new to the market, Treehouse has made quite an impact in just a few years. Offering technically-orientated learning this MOOC platform, provides professional courses and learning tracks aimed at people wanting to pursue a career in technically-focused fields. There are more than 300 individual courses covering 23 subjects. 

Learning tracks are a sequence of courses covering the same subject for people who want to progress and move through a specific field or industry. One of the most popular features of the Treehouse platform is the Treehouse ProTech degree. Unique to Treehouse, this program gives people the option of progressing from beginner to ‘job ready’ in a matter of months (between two and 12 depending on the subject). 

More than 50,000 students have chosen Treehouse to study with and it is known for being easy to navigate and highly user friendly. Another great feature of Treehouse is that you can take a free trial before committing which is a highly effective way of testing out a course before you have to pay for it. 

Offering a variety of video-based coding courses, all the most popular programming languages are available including Java, Ruby, Swift, HTML, CSS, Python and JavaScript. Software development courses include web design, web development, iOS development, PHP development and Android development.


One of the fastest growing learning platforms in the world, this award-winning online education company offers online and offline training. Its aim is to make learning and education accessible and available to all, regardless of age, background or location. It has partnered with a number of leading academic organizations and corporations to offer round the clock classes, support and even in-built messaging systems.

The platform boasts more than 40,000 students and there are thousands of hours of training available on Edureka. There are online lectures available in around 20 categories with plenty of choice for the keen software developer looking to improve their job prospects. Choose from software testing, frontend development, mobile development, Edureka data science courses, artificial intelligence, Edureka big data and Cloud computing.

Edureka prides itself on offering relevant and up-to-date training in emerging technologies such as machine learning and blockchain and offers courses suitable for everyone from graduates through to experienced professionals looking up to brush up on their skills and knowledge.


Offering a refreshingly different approach to the world of online learning, Alison has a good choice of software related courses. Its unique selling point is the fact that it generates its income from advertising so you can take free courses and certifications, making it completely democratic.

There are nine key areas in which you can take courses including information technology. Within this field there is a wide variety of courses available which include Introduction to Software Testing, Diploma in Software Testing, Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP), IT Management Software and Databases and Software Defined Networking and Cloud Computing. 

You can choose from three main types of courses. Working towards a certificate allows you to focus on a specific subject and is a quick and easy way to gain knowledge on your chosen subject in just a few hours. Diploma courses take a little longer but will obviously carry more kudos at the end and a full learning path requires more of a commitment, but means that you will end up with a comprehensive knowledge in a particular area.


If you are looking for an accredited course that you can undertake at your own pace, then Simplilearn is the perfect choice. With more than 400 courses on offer and a team of over 2,000 professional experts, the aim of the platform is to help professionals improve their skill set, build their knowledge and progress towards their career goals.

Courses last on average a month, though some may be shorter and others longer. You need to fully commit when you sign up for a Simplilearn course, but the results are worth it.

The courses use a variety of learning tools ranging from videos and live discussions to quizzes, assignments, projects and final exams. With the help of provided guidelines one can work on personal projects as well.

The platform is considered to be easy to use and appeals to professionals who want to take accredited courses taught by industry experts. In the field of software development, Simplilearn offers a number of courses including a Professional Certificate Program in Blockchain, a Post Graduate Program in Cloud Computing and a Post Graduate Program in Data Science.


Specializing only in data science and analysis courses, DataCamp is ideal for seasoned professionals who want to enhance their skills and collaborate with fellow industry colleagues. This MOOC partners with more than 1,600 companies and 3,000 academic organizations, offering in excess of 350 courses to some 7m learners in 180 countries. That’s some impressive stats!

Course students can choose from stand-alone courses and learning tracks. Learning tracks are divided into two categories. Skill tracks are a combination of individual courses which combine to give all-round knowledge needed to master a specific skill or area, whilst career track courses are designed to help the student prepare for a particular career.

Courses are engaging and interactive and students can choose from programming courses in Python, R and SQL as well as data engineering, programming, machine learning, importing and cleaning data, data manipulation and data visualization.


One of the best known and longest established learning platforms, Pluralsight provides nearly 5,000 different courses primarily in the field of technology. Most courses have easily downloadable files so you can continue to practice when offline in your own time.

Attractive features include completion certificates, learning checks and quizzes and discussion forums. According to users, Pluralsight offers some of the best quality video content around and is considered to be extremely user-friendly.

Relevant software courses include End-to-End Software Development, Building Software, Software Systems Security, Java Path, Python Path, Cloud Computing and Machine Learning / Artificial Intelligence.


Founded in the UK, FutureLearn was one of Britain’s first online education providers. It offers a wide selection of British courses and also a number of universities in the US. Courses range from popular short courses through to micro-credential programs and certificates, and even full online degrees. It is unusual to be able to work towards a recognized and accredited degree from a fully online platform and this is what sets FutureLearn apart from many of its competitors.

The platform boasts more than 10m students and partners with over 175 universities from around the world.

Its courses are fully accredited and certificates are issued by the universities themselves rather than FutureLearn, meaning they carry a lot more weight.

FutureLearn uses a variety of learning tools from video content, audio tasks and reading articles through quizzes and assignments. There is a good selection of software related courses to choose from. Some examples include Software Development Fundamentals, Programming Language and HTML, Software Development with Java and Python and Collaborative Coding with Git.

LinkedIn Learning

One of the top providers of online learning courses, what makes LinkedIn Learning different is the sheer choice of courses on offer. With more than 16,000 available at any one time, more than 50 brand new courses are added to the platform each week and classes are uploaded constantly. 

Students can choose from learning by subject, to improve their experience in a particular skill set, or they can take a learning path which can help them transition into a completely new field.

The courses are easy to access and everyone receives a certificate of completion at the end of their course. Thanks to LinkedIn’s ubiquity, its courses are industry-recognized and are a great way to add to your existing skill set or even give you the option of choosing to take a completely different career path. 

If you are looking to switch to another career into software development, then LinkedIn Learning might be a good place to start. Relevant courses include Learning Python, Python Essential Training, SQL Essential Training and Blockchain Basics.

What are the essential skills for a software developer?

The tech industry is evolving constantly and so, implicit in the role as software developer, is the need to keep upgrading your knowledge and qualifications. Whether you are entry level or a seasoned professional, you will be required to make sure your career portfolio is up to date. 

The following list isn’t meant to be in any way comprehensive but gives a snapshot of the skills considered essential to be a successful software developer in 2021.

Cloud computing skills

Many businesses and organizations are currently shifting over to Cloud as it is more cost effective and offers greater capacity. Sooner or later as a software developer you are likely to have to work with cloud-native software applications as well as roles in data science, machine learning and artificial intelligence. 

Only Cloud can provide the power needed by these resource-hungry models, so it is recommended that you pick up working knowledge of AWS, GCP or Azure. Opinions vary on the best model to learn but AWS is generally considered to be the most popular and well-established.

DataCamp offers a course in Cloud Computing for Everyone, whilst edX offer training in AWS development. Pluralsight has a large selection of AWS related courses from beginner to professional level. Other providers of courses on AWS and Cloud are Udacity, FutureLearn, LinkedIn Learning, Alison, Simplilearn and Treehouse.

Data structure & algorithms

There is no getting away from the need to know about data structure and algorithms. Without knowledge in this area, it’s not possible to write a real-world software application. There are free algorithm courses easily available and most bootcamps teach the basics of data and algorithms.

Pluralsight have courses including Introduction to Algorithms and Algorithms and Data Structures, whilst Coursera runs training in Data Structure and Algorithms and Algorithms Part 1. LinkedIn Learning offers an Introduction to Data Structures and Algorithms in Java. You can also find great entry level courses on data structure and algorithms with DataCamp, edX and Udacity. Udemy provides a course on Algorithms and Data Structures in Python.

Source control

Source control is essential to be able to store code, so if you are looking to be a software developer or coder then you need to know version controls such as Git and SVN. More than 70% of organizations use Git and github open-source projects so knowledge in this area would be extremely pertinent for any resume. There are free entry level courses for Git and more detailed paid-for courses and qualifications so take your pick…

Introductory courses are offered by DataCamp, Treehouse, Pluralsight, Coursera, Edureka, Udemy, LinkedIn Learning and Code Academy with more complex training available via FutureLearn, Alison and Simplilearn.


To be able to say you are completely industry ready as a software developer, then a working knowledge of containers and tools such as Docker and Kubernetes is essential. 

Docker has been proven to help developers test software applications within a unified environment and helps to simplify the deployment process. Scalability can be an issue when it comes to expanding software applications and so awareness of containers such as Kubernetes is priceless as this tool scales up automatically. 

LinkedIn Learning has a number of courses in this area which include basic Learning Docker and Learning Kubernetes courses as well as Docker for Developers and Docker vs Kubernetes. Edureka provides a course in Docker Certification Training while Alison runs a Diploma in Development Operations Engineering – Kubernetes, Docker and Google Cloud. 

You can also choose from a Docker Certified Associate (DCA) Certification Training Course and a course as a Certified Kubernetes Administrator, both organized by Simplilearn. Treehouse’s offering is an Introduction to Docker course and Udemy runs a Docker and VS Code Master Class. Pluralsight has a number of Docker-related training courses.

Text editing

Anyone who wants to work with computers at whatever level has to be able to use a text editor. There are a number of choices, but NotePad is the most popular on Windows and there is also VIM on Linux and Sublime and NotePad++.

You can learn more about VIM with a simple LinkedIn Learning course such as Learning VIM or Introduction to VIM as well as Introduction to Linux and Learning Linux Command Line. Pluralsight offers an interestingly entitled ‘Smash into VIM’ course.

Integrated development environment (IDEs)

An IDE is a software application that combines common developer tools into a single entity. Another essential tool for the aspiring software engineer or coder. The choice of IDE is dependent upon which program you use, but the most popular ones include VS Code, Jupyter Notebook, Eclipse and IntelliJIDEA.

Udemy offers a Learn VS Code course and other providers of training on VS Code include LinkedIn Learning and Pluralsight.


As a software developer you need to be able to demonstrate an understanding of working with databases. You can’t create any kind of application without a database so knowledge in this area is useful.

SQL is considered to be the most popular. It’s been around for many years and looks set to stay, so this would be a good place to start with any database training. 

For pro database administrators, other databases include Oracle, PostgreSQL, Microsoft SQL Server and My SQL. You only need knowledge of one database, so it’s worth doing a bit of research to find which one is the most relevant for you.

Udemy offers a good beginner’s course Introduction to Databases which is free and other online training providers include FutureLearn, Pluralsight, Coursera and edX.

Operating system

Any software developer worth their salt should know the fundamentals and mechanisms of the operating system on which they work. Linux is the most well-known and has been around for more than 30 years.

Displaying a working knowledge of Linux is very useful for a programmer. It allows the operator to work effectively, search files and know exactly what is going on with the system and also means they can perform both basic and more advanced tasks.

There are a multitude of training courses in this area. Choose from Introduction to Linux from LinkedIn Learning, Linux Fundamentals Certification Training from Edureka, Unix/Linux and Shell Scripting Crash Course from Alison, though there are many more.

Computer networks

Most applications and programs are not stand-alone so will need to go through a network to a server where it can be accessed by clients anywhere in the world. In order to work in software design, you would need an understanding of how networks operate in order to develop and support your application or program.

Providers of training in this field include Udemy which offers a course in Complete Networking Fundamentals. Other training includes Bits and Bytes of Computer Networking from Coursera, Computer Networking from Udacity and Introduction to Networking from edX.


Before any software is released onto the market, it has to be thoroughly tested and pass a number of major milestones. Testing is a crucial step to finding any bugs or issues before it’s too late and to make sure that the software application or program is ready to go to market.

There are a number of testing methods but there are three main steps:

  • Unit testing: each module or class is tested individually
  • Integration testing: testing the interaction between modules or blocks
  • System testing: tests conducted on the complete and integrated software

Demonstrating a working knowledge of the testing process means you can offer the whole package as a developer, a real advantage when applying to take on any software project. It is also an area that you can pick up knowledge on relatively easily, so it is well worth adding to your portfolio of skills.

Alison offers both an Introduction to Software Testing and a Diploma in Software Testing whilst Simplilearn has a Masters Program in Automation Testing, CodeAcademy has a course called Learn Testing for Web Development and other providers of testing courses are CodeAcademy, DataCamp, Coursera and FutureLearning. LinkedIn Learning has training in Software Testing and Edureka offers a course in Software Fundamentals Testing.

What is the career path for a software developer?

An entry level position would be a junior developer. From here, you could progress to becoming a software developer with promotion to senior software developer. Executive positions for experienced software developers include lead developer, technical architect, and development team lead, software development manager with top positions including director, vice president and chief technical officer.

Where do software developers work?

Unlike many industries, software development is a rapidly expanding field so the number of job opportunities available is simply vast. Software is all-pervasive and is used within most industries so even though you could choose to specialize in a relatively narrow field of software, the choice of industries to work in is still wide and varied. 

Areas of particular growth are computer systems design and related services, the finance and insurance industries, software publishing, the manufacturing industry and the management of companies and enterprises.

What salary can you expect as a software developer?

Software development was recently declared the number 1 job in the US (this is according to a US News & World Report) with the Bureau of Labor predicting growth of 30% by 2026.

With the software industry being such a popular field in which to work, it is no surprise to learn that salaries can be very lucrative. As with all occupations, the level of salary is dependent on experience, knowledge and qualifications, but the average salary is generally considered to be very rewarding. 

The median salary for systems software developers in 2019 was $107,510 with the highest 10 per cent commanding in excess of $136,320. The lowest 10 per cent received in the region of $82,430.

Whether you are self-taught and are looking to launch a career in the software industry, or you already have a degree in software and are looking to make yourself industry-ready, there is no shortage of online training out there. The beauty of the training available to you is that it is easy to source for free and many courses can be fitted in around other commitments, so you can spend as little or as much time as you wish reaching your ultimate career goal.


Business writing is one of the most important skills needed to be successful in the business world. It involves developing a writing process that is used by business professionals in a corporate setting. 

Depending on the position you hold in your organization, successful communication between you and your coworkers very much depends on how effectively you can communicate.

The key is to be able to write with the purpose and making use of your thought provoking words to express your feelings effectively and convey your message to the readers.

Business reports, memos, official notices, reference letters, emails, proposals by the clients or any other document that communicates something about your business will be considered as business writing.

Being proficient in business writing is crucial to establish productive communication with the stakeholders that definitely leads you to gain huge success in your career.

Best practices for business writing 

In order to acquire effective business writing skills, you must adopt best practice methods in writing style, English grammar, sentence structures, and business writing strategies. Using a combination of simple tools, communication skills and persuasive writing are the key factors to successful business writing.

Put the important points first

Try keeping it simple and straightforward to make it clear why you are producing any business document. If you are writing an email to the business stakeholders and discussing some agenda that has a connection with some previous meeting that has been held already, then keep in mind points raised by the participants while you write this email.

Make sure, you must address the conflicts raised by the participants in a very artistic manner while making use of a bit of diplomatic language. 

So it is always recommended to make a list of all the aspects that you intend to address in the email you are writing.

Make use of simple words 

Try not to alienate the intended recipient by using convoluted or flowery language, and keep the tone gentle and persuasive rather than cold and calculating. This is how your words will grab the attention of your readers as they will be able to relate themselves to what you have written in your write-up.

Knowing your audience is the key to success in business writing

Try avoiding the technical jargons unless you are producing some industry-specific document. However, if it is necessary for you to add some technical terms, then you may attach a list of these terms separately for your readers’ convenience. 

Here you have to learn how to adjust your writing style as well as the tone to better address your audience. For example, the tone and style of the reference letter will be different in comparison to the complaint letter.

Why must you use active verbs, not passive verbs?

Active verbs correspond to the human brain naturally that helps the readers understand the business writings quickly.

For instance: “The action has been taken to increase the production”. This sentence is open for the readers to comprehend in their own way and they may interpret it in multiple ways without knowing who took that action. Whereas “The management took the action to increase the production” offers very clear meaning for the readers. 

Say exactly what you mean

While looking at the example given above, one can say that choosing the phrase “took the action” rather than “action has been taken” makes the reading straightforward and easier for the readers.

These are just the basics of effective business writing. In order to become truly proficient, it may be beneficial to undertake an online business writing course. Mastering this skill can greatly improve your professional skillset but with so many business writing classes and courses to choose from, it can be hard to know where to begin. 

Are online business writing courses worth it?

There is a vast array of writing courses available and so it is vital to do your research to make sure you find a course that is useful and relevant to you. 

With the right amount of support, training and practice, you can learn powerful writing skills and successfully utilize these in your professional life. 

This guide brings you Top 9 online business writing courses to choose from so you may select the one which you think best suits your requirements:

1. Business Writing – Coursera 

Business Writing – Coursera

Offering a good combination of practical skills to help improve your writing skills, as well as teaching you how to structure your writing and revise it until you’re happy with it, this is a four-week course that ultimately leads to you being able to deliver what is known as ‘effective communication’. 

Using a mix of online quizzes and instructional videos, the training is given by the hugely popular Dr. Quentin McAndrew together with Dave Underwood, graphic design tutor and Professor William Kuskin, who teaches about successful presentation.

Thanks to the accessibility of the course, you should be able to apply what you’ve learnt into your working environment fairly quickly.

What to expect from this course

  • At the end enrollees receive a completion certification from the University of Colorado 
  • You are able to get access to the course permanently so you can revisit the material time and time again and means you can learn in your own time

What this course will teach you

  • 10 principles of effective business writing 
  • Use of practical tools to quickly improve your business writing 
  • Best ways to organize, structure and revise your work 


Instructor: Dr. Quentin McAndrew

Level: Beginner 

Class Project: Capstone Project 

Video Lectures: 52

User Review: 4.8/5 (1002 reviews) 

Price: Free

2. Better Business Writing Skills – Udemy 

Better Business Writing Skills – Udemy

Divided into three parts, this course is taught by Mark Morris, who is worth mentioning in his own right, because he is an award-winning speechwriter who has experience of writing for senior politicians both in the UK (two ex-Prime Ministers no less!) and globally.

The three sections of the course are:

  • How to plan your business writing
  • The writing process itself
  • How to edit your writing effectively 

Don’t expect a technical course full of complicated grammatical pointers. Instead, it emphasizes the importance of classic principles necessary to produce writing that is concise and engaging. 

What to expect from this course

  • Certificate of completion which is verified and can be shared 
  • Complimentary book including practical exercises

What this course will teach you

  • How to write persuasively to reach your goals
  • Clever ideas to keep your writing flowing
  • The right approach and structure to take before writing anything
  • How important effective business writing is for your job or company
  • The power of accurate editing 
  • How to maximize the effectiveness of your writing 


Instructor: Mark Morris

Level: All levels 

Class Project: N/A 

Video Lectures: 64

User Review: 4.6/5 (8314 reviews)

Price: $138

3. Enhance your business writing skills – edX

Enhance your business writing skills – edX

Offering a rounded and in-depth approach, this Business Writing Professional certificate is a comprehensive course, ideal for seasoned professionals looking to add to their existing skillset.

From collecting information and how to structure your writing to the final editing process, it is all covered here and also allows for different types of business correspondence, ensuring students leave with an all-encompassing set of skills. 

The course is delivered by Tim Peter and Margaret Steen from the University of California, Berkeley (BerkeleyX).

What to expect from this course 

  • Both assignments and exams 
  • Professional certificate that is verified and can be shared 
  • A relevant set of professional writing skills

What this course teaches you

  • How to organize content and ideas in the most effective way
  • How to write all manner of correspondence for maximum effect
  • How to resolve practical matters of grammar and punctuation
  • How to get the right style for your writing


Level: All levels 

Class Project: Yes

Video Lectures: N/A

User Review: N/A

Price: $537.30/ Free (Audit)

4. Business Writing for Busy People – Udemy

Business Writing for Busy People – Udemy

If you are looking for training that is quick and easy, but that will equip you with the necessary skills to be able to write more effectively, then the aptly-named Business Writing for Busy People is the course for you.

Designed to be completed in less than two hours, the main aim of the training is to enable business professionals to write crisp, clear copy which is easily accessible to the reader.

The course is given by Dr. Clare Lynch who runs the highly successful consultancy Doris and Bertie in London, UK. Her business offers people the opportunity to learn how to write for their profession, so she is ideally placed to deliver this training. 

What to expect from this course 

  • Certificate of completion which can be downloaded and which is verified 
  • Interactive tasks
  • Useful online links for further learning
  • Access to a good-sized e-book with key summaries, tasks, assignments and exercises written by Dr. Clare Lynch herself

What will this course teach you

  • How to quickly plan what you are trying to say
  • How to organize and structure your writing clearly and accurately
  • How to write engaging copy to keep the attention of the reader
  • The key to striking the right business tone
  • Techniques to make your writing more effective 


Instructor: Clare Lynch

Level: All levels 

Class Project: N/A

Video Lectures: 38

User Review: 4.4/5 (1337 reviews) 

Price: $11.99

5. Business Communication – Fundamentals of Business Writing – Alison

Business Communication – Fundamentals of Business Writing – Alison

Get ready to learn the fundamentals of business writing with your experienced instructor. First of all, you will be taught to get prepared by learning the prerequisites of business writing to craft a successful business letter.

You will be taught how to get into the shoes of your business audience while applying the principles of business communication to communicate your thoughts clearly and efficiently. Expect yourself to be able to write a business letter that must look professional and distinctive. 

What you may expect from this course 

  • You will learn the rules that govern the business writing
  • You will be able to collect the essential elements to incorporate in business document while planning the writing process
  • You will learn to present your knowledge and information effectively while adopting particular writing style
  • Also you will be taught the legal implications of business writing
  • You will be taught to produce three different layouts of business letter

What this course will teach you

  • Module 1 of this online free course will give you a detailed introduction of the business writing
  • Module 2 will equip you with the flawless business communication and writing skills
  • Comprehensive training will be given to the enrollees to craft business reports in third module of this course
  • Final assessment will be conducted in the last and fourth module of this course


Instructor: Alison

Level: Beginner 

Class Project: N/A

Video Lectures: N/A

User Review: 5/5

Price: Free 

6. Business Writing Strategies – LinkedIn Learning

Business Writing Strategies – LinkedIn Learning

If you intend to learn how to write for a specific business purpose then this is the right course for you. Do you want to learn how to present information effectively? Do you intend to deliver good or bad news to the stakeholders? Do you want to gain some support for your business idea? Or you’re producing a business document for a combination of purposes?

This course offers you the techniques, tools as well as templates you need to answer all the above questions while crafting a document for your specific business strategy.

Judy Steiner-Williams is a senior lecturer at Kelley Business School and she will be your instructor for this course which means if you have enrolled for this course then you are in the safe hands already.

What you may expect from this course 

  • You may access all the lectures free of cost for month during the trial period
  • Enrollees can access the resources for lifetime
  • You will receive verified certificate that will be shareable 

What this course will teach you

  • You will be taught how to draft an outline and strategy to produce the business document
  • You will learn the ways to emphasize while conveying good news
  • You will be provided with plenty of examples and samples of variety of purposes for business writing
  • You will learn how to create an inspiring intro and summary of the business document


Instructor: Judy Steiner-Williams

Level: All 

Class Project: N/A

Video Lectures: 30 

User Review: 4.5/5

Price: Free on LinkedIn Premium

7. Business Writing Simplified – SkillShare

Business Writing Simplified – SkillShare

If you want to grab the due attention towards your emails and business reports that you are unable to attract so far, then get enrolled in this course right away.

You really want your business documents to be concise and to the point but mostly you end up creating piles of pages. With this course, get ready to learn the effective business writing skill with your instructor Chris Heath.   

What you may expect from this course

Expect yourself to learn the reality of different myths related to business writing and get to know how to make the business documents and written correspondences simpler.

What this course will teach you

  • This is the best course for all levels of writers (from beginners to the advanced level) to incorporate business writing principles in a variety of business documents such as manuals, business reports, memos, emails, etc.
  • This is an incredible resource for the lawyers to learn the business writing principles as well as fundamental principles of English language applicable to business writing


Instructor: Chris Heath

Level: All levels 

Class Project: 2

Video Lectures: 7

User Review: (40 reviews) 

Price: Free on the 7-day free-trial/ $8.25 per month annual membership

8. The Business Writing Course – Skillshare

The Business Writing Course – Skillshare

It is a proven fact that your success in the business always depends on how effectively you communicate. In case you are unable to write clearly, it will be hard for you to land a job opportunity that can pay you well and even if you are hired, it will be very difficult to get promoted. 

Alan Sharpe, as being your instructor for this course will teach you how to write concisely, clearly and convincingly.

Since 1987, Alan has been serving the world’s renowned organizations to produce their flawless business documents and since then has trained countless number of professionals to do the same. He has served the biggest brands and Fortune 500 companies such as IBM and Apple.

What you may expect from this course

  • You can learn amazing business copywriting skills with just 7 hours of effort
  • If you are not good at editing the business documents then enroll in this business writing course to strengthen your proofreading and editing skills.
  • This online course is designed to work in the style of “learn, practice and repeat”.
  • This is a pretty much different course in comparison to the conventional classroom style so get ready to be amazed while you enroll in this course.
  • Get ready to learn through practice and keep repeating any particular module unless you have nailed it.

What will this course teach you?

This entire course is divided into seven comprehensive modules:

  • You will be introduced with the business writing techniques in the first module
  • Module two will teach you to organize your thoughts while you start the business writing process
  • Third module will teach you to craft your first draft
  • In the fourth module you will be taught to proofread and edit your first draft
  • Rest of the modules will bring your business writing skills to the next level.


Instructor: Alan Sharpe

Level: All levels 

Class Project: Yes

Video Lectures: 30 

User Review: 4.6/5 (9 reviews)

Price: Free Trial

9. High-Impact Business Writing – Coursera

High-Impact Business Writing – Coursera

This course will teach you the art to be better understood by your readers by articulating your thoughts in precise and very concise manner. Here you learn how to manipulate language and adjust your writing style in accordance with your audience.

Your instructor is Sue Robin who is equipped with 25 years of experience in teaching, training and facilitating business writing projects for a variety of organizations. 

What you may expect from this course

  • You will receive verifiable certificate from the University of California, Irvine Extension and Coursera
  • You will have lifetime access to the online writing course that allows you flexibility you need to learn at your own pace if you sign up for a premium package.

What this course will teach you

Upon completion of this online course, you’ll be able to:

  • Create content for the presentations, business docs, press release, emails, business reports and memos.
  • Proofread and edit the business documents
  • Spot the errors, correct them and avoid the most common writing pitfalls


Instructor: Sue Robin, M.S. Ed

Level: Beginner

Class Project: N/A

Video Lectures: 22

User Review: 4.5/5 (571 reviews)

Price: Free


Making sure you find the right course for you will really help you to gain a better understanding of professional writing skills. Whether you are looking for an accolade from a prestigious educational establishment or some simple practical skills, the end goal is the same – to learn how to write professionally. 

Before you pick any of the courses, you should write down your goals and objectives that you want to achieve by taking any course online. Pick a course that covers both the appropriate level of expertise and the preferred length of time needed to complete it.

A business person with less than a year of experience would need to take a basic course, whereas someone with a few years’ experience under their belt might find an intermediate course more useful.

Advanced level online courses are for professionals who are well versed in business and need to polish their skills for ‘C-suite’ or executive level career paths. 

Lastly, as a busy professional, it is important to pick a course that allows you the flexibility to learn at your own pace and according to your schedule. Before you make the final decision, it is highly recommended to visit the particular online learning platform where that course is being offered. Learn more about the course and the instructor with the help of reviews of the enrollees.

If you find everything in accordance with what you expect from that course, then go ahead and sign up for trial business writing classes to ensure that you have selected the right course. And there you go!

Happy learning!

Decisions are fundamental in a successful workplace. In any career, one will face many situations where the ability to make a well-informed choice can differentiate them from others.

This makes them not only an asset in business, but with relationships and personal life as well. The awareness of why this skill is so important and the understanding of how to execute it effectively may heighten one’s performance in many situations.

This eliminates the chance of making poor decisions; those of which can have negative outcomes on oneself and many aspects of their work.

This article will examine a few categories as to why decision making is important, how and what it can affect, how to develop this particular skill and how to do it well in a team. Hence “decision making at workplace is an art” and one can learn can learn it to win the respect of other while proving oneself as a leader.

Related reading: How to Identify and Develop Soft Skills in the Workplace? 

The importance of decision-making

As stated earlier, decision-making is encountered on a daily basis. Whether it be as an employer, deciding on the right candidate for the job, or as straightforward as an employee debating which task ranks higher in importance to achieve. Such situations are guaranteed to occur, so it is crucial that they can be solved with the utmost efficiency.

Although the stakes of decision making varies on the rank of the individual in the workplace hierarchy, the value of well-informed decisions is extremely beneficial to everyone. When showing this skill, there is a chance of increasing reputation and possibly work rank, due to the necessity of its use.

What work aspects can decision making affect?

It cannot be pressed enough as to how important decision-making can be. A single choice can impact the result of many situations for the better (or worse), so it is important to be aware of what they are and how to achieve a positive and productive end-result. Those who are very biased in decision making, they are more likely to fall into confirmation bias. Such types of people can’t work like true professionals at the workplace.

Specific to the situation, good decision-making skills can:

Save costs

As an employer, there are many considerations that must be taken in order to manage their investments. For instance, staff wages are a big factor that must be rated highly in importance. If extra persons are rostered when there is no need, there can be a large amount of funds wasted that could have been put to good use elsewhere.

Utilities and stock are another component and if not handled correctly, can also result in money wastage. It is critical to handle the situation when the decision makers have to pick the best out of multiple choices. So you need to learn how to make smart decisions.

For example, a café owner needs to provide quality coffee. To do this, they must locate different choices of milk brands and evaluate which upholds a quality standard without breaking the bank. By researching and comparing with competition, they can make a choice that will satisfy the customer, whilst accommodating their budget.

Reduce product wastage

In the current day, this is an extremely significant issue, not just in the workplace but in households as well. If materials aren’t ordered in accurate quantities, are not used correctly or do not suit their requirements, it may lead to unnecessary waste; therefore, a waste in costs also.

For example, the boss of a paper company decides on changing their brand of ink. Instead of researching a few different options and comparing each of their pros and cons, they decide on buying one as the labelling pleases them.

In this case, the ink does not fit the quality standards of the company and is more expensive than their previous ink brand. This shows poor decision-making and results in wasted costs and resources. 

Improve time management 

By choosing how to best use your time, productivity in the workplace can increase exponentially. As an employee, it is important to manage time as well as possible, as it can show great potential and work ethic. However, if managed incorrectly, tasks may not be completed, staff wages can be wasted and reputation in the workplace can decrease. 

For example, an employee at a hair salon is in the midst of handling a client’s hair. They place a hair treatment on said client, but do not take notice as to how long it is left in for, which results in hair damage.

This shows poor time management and can affect customer loyalty, as in this instance, the client was not provided the service they required and wasted their time, money and effort.

Provide customer satisfaction

In any business, customers and their satisfaction are a priority; without them, there would be no market to cater for. Understanding how important their support and loyalty is to an industry can help factor them into decision making.

A workplace that is attentive to the needs and wants of their market can be more effective in obtaining necessary sales and customer loyalty, rising above competition that doesn’t put in these efforts. 

Prevent liabilities

In every industry there are risks, whether big or small, and it is the responsibility of each worker to ensure safe practices that eliminate the chances of them occurring. Liabilities cover a range of different things, whether it being an injury, harassment, incorrect wages and more. It is imperative that a system is followed, in accordance with each unique case, to ensure any negative effects are avoided.

For example, a bricklayer is standing on scaffolding whilst building a wall and is not wearing the correct work-wear. As they have not followed the procedure for safe clothing at work, they are putting themselves in a position where they may be harmed. This is a liability that can be easily avoided.

Develop relationships

By taking the time to consider others’ ideas in your decision-making process, an individual can build strong relationships with them. This is an important strategy for employers and higher ranked work members to use as it makes their team feel valued, in turn creating a happy, motivated workplace.

The stronger the bonds between a team also increases loyalty, reducing the chances of an individual withdrawing from their position for negative reasons. A great way to help include the visions and thoughts of all employees is to have a suggestion box and/or have frequent team meetings to allow anyone the chance to speak their mind.

It is important to have an open-mind when approaching these suggestions, as any biased reactions would defeat the original purpose. As mentioned earlier, here in this situation as well, the decision makers have to save themselves from being fallen into confirmation bias.

Training to become a good decision maker

As decisions occur so often, it is critical that a structure must be followed to ensure a decent solution, regardless of the situation. To do this, it is important to follow a system which will analyze the problem, look at a wide variety of solutions, then provide the most beneficial outcome.

Below is a process that includes all aspects of decision-making to yield the most positive result.

  • (Step One) Specify the issue
  • (Step Two) Analyze all options
  • (Step Three) Determine the pros and cons
  • (Step Four) Select an option
  • (Step Five) Implement the choice
  • (Step Six) Evaluate the outcome


1.) For example, an employer has noticed that one of their employees are decreasing in productivity when at work. They are taking many sick days and aren’t performing to standard, which is making a negative impact on the business.

This has fulfilled Step One, specifying the issue, which in this case is the unmotivated staff member.

2.) Step Two is to analyze all options. The employer has a few different choices in this scenario, the first being to fire the employee immediately.

3.) Using Step Three, they understand this would be the fastest path to eliminate the issue, however would lead to the need to find and hire another candidate to fit the position. Using these two steps makes it possible for the employer to find the correct solution for the issue.

For example, option number two could be to have trust in the staff member and hope that they will set themselves back on the right path; thus, remotivating themselves to work to the correct standard.

Although there is a chance that it may happen, there is no definite proof that it will happen, leaving the chance that business will continue to decrease.

Option three is to organize a meeting with said staff and address them on their actions. This situation could go many ways: the staff, possibly irritated with the negative report, quits instantly. Or, this gives them the opportunity to be aware of their negative effects and change how they act to resolve the issue. The employer decides they will follow option three and give their staff a chance, fulfilling

4.) Step Four. However, they realize that there is the possibility there will be no changes, even after the discussion, so the employer decides to provide an amount of time in which the staff must prove they can change their current attitude. If nothing improves in that amount of time, they will be dismissed.

5.) This leads to Step Five. The meeting is held and the staff member takes it quite well, understanding the impact of their negative attitude. They are given two weeks to show they have what it takes to uphold their duties and be part of the team, otherwise they will lose their position.

Two weeks pass and the attitude of the staff hasn’t improved as planned, resulting in them being removed from the business. Another member is hired and productivity climbs to higher than the standard.

6.) Following Step Six and evaluating the outcome, the employer decides they made a good choice.

Although the staff member was fired regardless, the way the employer handled the situation showed that they were able to empathize with their staff and give them a chance. This reduced the possibility of lingering negativity or backlash due to the loss of position, showing great leadership qualities.

It is important that a good decision maker must remove any emotional viewpoints when making their choices as it allows the chance to view all possible options, remaining unbiased.

This gives the best chance of the business being ranked highly, as it should when it comes to decision-making in the workplace. It is also essential that these choices be made within a reasonable time limit, to reduce the possibility of negative results, which can further the ability to use this skill. 

Emotional bias and emotional intelligence are two separate fields

As it is known, IQ or Intelligence Quotient is the measure of an individual’s mental ability; the higher the IQ, the greater the ability to problem-solve. There is another measure, EQ or Emotional Quotient, which determines one’s range in five different categories.

These are self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills. This topic is quite important as it reflects on the way humans can change emotionally, which can result in the possibility of changed thinking.

When someone is motivated in life by the need of connection and self-expression, they reflect on negative situations with a positive perspective. This helps them grow understanding of not only themselves, but influences how they perceive any decision in life.

For example, an individual who is positively driven may put themselves through a wide variety of different positions where they are challenged. Taking only the positive influences from these situations, their way of thinking on a particular subject may have been altered by the knowledge they have gained.

The more this is practiced, the higher the number of angles a situation can be observed from. For someone with a high EQ it would be easier to make well-informed decisions, compared to the decisions of someone with a low EQ, as they have the necessary strengths to help influence their choices. This is what makes a good leader and more importantly, a good decision maker.

Decision making as a team

When working as a group, this skill can be utilized extremely well, gathering the opinions from a wide variety of sources. This not only increases the chances of making a suitable choice, but makes workers feel more involved; in turn strengthening the trust and bond in work relationships.

This has very positive effects in a workplace; building loyalty with staff and reducing the likelihood of any negativity occurring, which could have unfavorable consequences. However, there is still the possibility of negativity, which can occur when a team may not be open minded.

It can be hard to decide on a final option if there are members of the party who believe their suggestion is the answer and won’t agree to a compromise. To ensure this situation does not arise, it is crucial to implement the correct decision-making when choosing the team.

By weighing the strengths and weaknesses of each member, it is possible to choose those who will have the most positive effects on the team and the business, making group discussions an easier, more rewarding process. Knowing how their team works can also aid an employer in making them feel more comfortable and are able to make use of their assets.

By having a team that is comfortable working on a project and trusts each other and feels comfortable, an employer can be assured that their employees will also trust in their decisions, strengthening the confidence of both employer and employees.

It cannot be emphasized how valuable this bond is for a business. Staff that share this business connection of positivity are more likely to: 

Have better communication

By having the confidence to speak their minds, knowing that they are in a safe and accepted environment, all workers can have their say. This results in staff feeling involved, making them more productive at work and improving their teamwork. This also helps the strength of the team trust to grow, helping them solve problems with high efficiency.

When it comes to making certain decisions at organizational level, the leader in charge has to take responsibility for effective communication among the team members. It is a proven fact that one cannot make a sound decision in isolation which means as a leader, you have to bring all parties onboard to take the perspectives of all the stakeholders.

Different perspectives of all the concerned parties will help in framing the issue in a unique way. However, when a decision is made without consultation of the concerned parties in the organization that is more likely to end in a catastrophic decision.

Take pride in their work

The better an employer is at making the right decisions for the business and staff, the higher the chance that said staff will make choices that have positive effects on the business. This is because the trust in good leadership helps develop pride in work successes, providing motivation to work. 

Make less mistakes

By placing the trust in leadership to make the correct decisions, staff are more likely to accept advice and implement it in their work. This favors higher chances of success, and even if a negative outcome is met, it provides a chance for both employer and employee to learn; again, helping to build a trusting relationship.

It is important to note that a scenario may occur when no reasonable options may be encountered within the team. In this case, it would be wise to seek insight from an individual that has more knowledge in the area.

This is not regarded as poor-leadership, as it shows they are not afraid to seek higher consultation when in need, regardless of their own specific naivety. It gives them a chance to learn, so when faced with a similar issue, it can be resolved efficiently.

This is the key to a happy, harmonious workplace, and can result in improved business productivity and a raise in reputation. 

Avoid falling into groupthink and the biases

There are always advantages and disadvantages of making decisions as a team so as being a leader you have to be smart to avoid its downsides.

First of all, you have to make sure that this entire process of decision making must not be trapped into groupthink. It can be proved toxic to the decision making process that has to be carried on at the organizational level.

Also you need to be careful as the expected biases can potentially distort the overall process as well as the ultimate outcome. However, there are certain advantages of bringing more minds into the process of decision making to solve the issue in question. Researchers have suggested some incredible strategies to increase the chances of your team to land on a successful solution. These strategies include but not limited to:

  • Make a small group of stakeholders specifically when you are in process of making some crucial decision
  • Keep the irrelevant people away from this group so that the decisions made the group should help you reach the desired goal
  • Bring the diversity in the group
  • There must be a devil’s advocate in the group
  • There is no harm to collect the individual’s opinions independently
  • Let the team members speak without any hesitation
  • Over-relying on experts in your group may harm the decision making process 
  • Bring all the parties in action by assigning the tasks and collective responsibilities for the desired outcome


Decision-making is such an important skill to master when it comes to any workplace. It is used on a daily basis, and when practiced effectively can have many positive effects and outcomes on a scenario.

Those who can use it to their advantage show not only a high EQ, but leadership qualities which can further them in their specific area of work. This is definitely a skill that is worth working on and will improve many factors of their business and life.


People have changed their perceptions of the required programming skills in an era of modern technologies and autonomous and intelligent systems. However, any solid programming skills that top professionals display tend to have proficiency in C++ programming to begin their career paths as a developer.

It is fascinating to discover that C++ is among the most popular programming languages globally due to its applicability for developing a wide range of applications and software programs.

C++ is an extension of the C programming language, which is more dynamic and universal. Although many sophisticated programming languages have been introduced in the past years, C++ plays an essential role in various programming tasks.

Today, C++ is widely used for applications, and a majority of operating systems are programmed using C++ language.  Similarly, C++ is also used in backend technology for applications that require high-end graphical processing with highly graphic-intensive applications.

Simultaneously, C++ is also used for modern gadgets like smartwatches and is found in some of the diagnostic machines in medicine.  The large variety of applications that uses C++ programming ranges from financial systems to cloud systems and even browsers and compilers. Therefore C++ developers continue to have constant demand in the industry.  

Getting Started in the Industry

Educational Qualifications

For aspirants aiming for a career as a C++ developer, the educational qualifications are of utmost importance. A typical C++ developer role requires a bachelor’s degree that will enable developers to have a minimum of an entry-level position which can vary as per the programming proficiency of the individual.

Additionally, those aiming for senior developer positions must opt for a master’s degree and other relevant certifications and hands-on expertise to be considered for such higher positions. According to recent reports, it has been found that more than 40% of the C++ developers and aspirants opt for a major in computer science or specialization in software development to build a solid foundation during their bachelor’s degree.

Foundations for Absolute Beginners

Fundamental Skills

Regardless of the programming languages known to a software engineer, it is essential to have some fundamental skills of the associated factors such as knowledge of databases and operating systems. It is advisable to upskill with the knowledge of SQL and MySQL alongside C++ and a fair amount of concepts related to Windows, and Linux can give the necessary boost to a career as a developer.

Another critical aspect of a developer’s career is the ability to understand source code control. In the current IT industry, the possibility of source code management in software development is necessary as it allows to coordinate the task with multiple experts while having the possibility to keep track of the changes in any of the files.

The combination of programming skills, alongside database and operating system knowledge and Git, can ensure aspirants begin their career slightly above the junior C++ developer positions in an organization as multinationals are always looking for multi-skilled professionals.

Critical Areas of C++ Language

The fundamentals of the C++ language are a must-have for any developer, and having the basics highlights strong developer skills. However, certain areas are highly preferred in the industry, such as data structures and algorithms. 

As learning proceeds to an advanced stage, the individuals must grasp the concepts of virtual methods, destructors, operator overloading, templates, classes, the standard library uses, and syntax. Additionally, several open source projects can be used to strengthen the professional coding styles further.

Furthermore, the essential tool required for development in C++ is a compiler. Therefore, people must understand the use of compiler and command-line interfaces (CLIs).  CLIs can read the programs and convert them into object codes.

This enables the computer to execute the source code directly. However, to make C++ more convenient to use, developers use IDE. Thus, it is advisable to understand how to use Visual Studio for Windows OS users. Similarly, GCC is considered a good option and should be among the skill set as it supports both macOS and Linux.

Essential Tips for Beginners

Those who are willing to take up online certificate courses for upskilling themselves must keep certain things in mind to embark on the journey as a C++ developer.


The amount of time required to learn C++ varies for different learners depending on the previous exposure to any kind of programming. It is highly advisable to begin from scratch for beginners. The learners who have some kind of experience with programming should also opt to refresh the fundamentals. The knowledge of the C language is a big plus as it allows learners to grasp the concepts much faster.


In the beginning, the basics of C++ might seem to be overwhelming. However, seeking experienced C++ programmers can make the learning easier with industry-oriented tips, which are not available in any books but are generated out of the experience.

Continuous Practice

To gain mastery of C++, one must look to have sufficient exposure to hands-on experience as it is the critical aspect of any programmer. The individuals should practice on real-world projects and understand the coding and approaches by top programmers on open-source projects. As technologies continue to evolve, the style of coding changes, hence one must look to visualize modern approaches which can provide invaluable information on the journey as a C++ developer.

Error Fix

As much as the coding aspect of programming is essential, a developer is considered an expert in finding errors in a code and fixing them. Debugging is equally relevant in an organization’s developmental environment. The trickiest part of a developer’s job is fixing the errors, and in an organization, there is not much help on that aspect. Therefore, one must equip themselves to be self-dependent to fix their coding errors on their own.

Association with Student and Professional Learning Community

There are several learning communities for students and professionals where top professionals and tutors provide valuable guidance and help understand the problems and provide insights into the industry and critical resources. Some of the communities are StackOverflow and CodeProject.

Top 10 Online C++ Certification Courses

Certificate courses on C++ help aspirants gain mastery over complex problem solving using the C++ programming language. Most of the top software engineers in multinational companies begin as C++ developers at some point in their careers.

The certification courses ensure that the aspirants build their programming skills and the analytical ability to become top-level programmers. Upon completing a comprehensive certificate course, the students are fully aware of the fundamentals, knowledge of working on real-world projects, and the skills required by software engineers to solve complex problems by designing algorithms, testing, and debugging the program’s developmental environment.

Some of the top courses on the e-learning platform for C++ are highlighted in the following section.

1. Coding for Everyone: C and C++ Specialization – Coursera

Coding for Everyone- C and C++ Specialization – Coursera

The course is offered by the University of California, Santa Cruz on the Coursera platform. The course follows a beginner to programmer path and provides a deep understanding of computer programming by building coding skills. It is divided into four modules-two for C language and the remaining two for C++.

The basics of programming in C are introduced to make it easier to grab the advanced concepts of C++ semantics and syntax. The course aims to build upon the skills to master high-level problems using algorithms for complex tasks through the projects. The course’s takeaway is a comprehensive understanding of coding, debugging, and complex problem-solving with C and C++ programming knowledge. The course curriculum includes the following:

  • C for Everyone: Programming Fundamentals
  • C for Everyone: Structured Programming
  • C ++ for C Programmers-Part A
  • C++ for C Programmers- Part B

Instructor: Ira Pohl

Level: Beginner

Video Lectures: NA

User Review: 4.4/5

Price: Free Enrollment (Additional charges may apply for certification)

2. Learn C++ – Codecademy

The course is available on Codecademy.  It is highly beneficial for absolute beginners. There are no prerequisites for the course. The takeaways from the course include a comprehensive understanding of the fundamental programming concepts and a look at some critical advanced C++ topics required for development today.

The learners will also get hands-on experience working on projects to display block letters, calculating the dog years, and a program that solves quadratic equations. The course modules are:

  • Hello World
  • Writing, compiling, and executing the first C++ program.
  • Variables
  • Introduction to variables and basic data types.
  • Conditionals and Logic
  • Learning how to use conditionals and logic to build programs for arriving at different outcomes.
  • Loops
  • Uses of loops in programming.
  • Loop Challenge Project
  • Vectors
  • Using vectors to keep the data organized.
  • Functions
  • Using functions to write flexible, modular, and reusable codes.
  • Functions Challenge Project
  • Classes and Objects
  • Using classes and objects to build scalable and modular programs.
  • References and Pointers
  • Learning to use powerful features of C++ such as references and pointers for directly manipulating the memory.

Instructor: Industry Experts

Level: Beginner

Video Lectures: NA

User Review: NA

Price: Price available on sign up

3. C++ Fundamentals Including C++ 17 – Pluralsight

The course is available on Pluralsight. In this course, the learners will write simple console applications and proceed to more advanced programming such as writing platform-specific codes using C++. 

First, the learners will be introduced to the basic syntax- declaring variables, classes, building expressions using operators and functions and templates, indirection and polymorphism.

Additionally, the learners will explore syntax additions from C++11, C++14, and C++17 with modern compilers for running the examples. Finally, the learners will have a thorough understanding of modern C++ in a developmental environment, using the standard library and idioms with the likes of resource acquisitions to reduce the memory management effort during developmental tasks.

At the end of the course, the learners will be comfortable with reading and writing modern C++, similar to advanced C++ developers in the industry today. The course modules comprise of the following:

Course Overview

  • Introduction
  • Why C++?
  • The Standard Library
  • Modern C++
  • Standardization


  • What do you need?
  • Building and popular tools
  • Visual Studio
  • Kinds of applications
  • Demo
  • Console application structure
  • Creating a project

Variables and Fundamental Types

  • Language Basics-Variables
  • Fundamental Types
  • Auto and Casting
  • Demo

User-Defined Types

  • Building
  • Classes and objects
  • Constructors
  • Scope
  • Struct and Namespace
  • Inheritance
  • Enumerations and the Preprocessor
  • Demo of the concepts covered

Flow of Control

  • Introduction
  • If, While and For
  • Switch
  • Immediate If
  • Demo


  • Free Functions
  • Member functions
  • Understanding error messages
  • Cause of error messages
  • Demo


  • Arithmetic operators
  • Comparisons
  • Bitwise operators
  • Operator overloading
  • Writing and overload
  • Demo


  • Template functions
  • Template classes
  • Template specialization
  • Demo


  • Pointers and references
  • Const
  • Const after or before?
  • Const with indirection
  • Demo

Memory Management

  • The Freestore
  • Manual memory management
  • Easy memory management
  • Standard library and intelligent pointers
  • Demo

Indirection and Inheritance

  • References and inheritance
  • Pointers and inheritance
  • Slicing
  • Casting and indirection
  • Demo

Instructor: Kate Gregory

Level: Beginner

Video Lectures: 114 video lectures

User Review: 4.7/5

Price: Free 10-day trial (Charges applicable after trial period. Price available on sign up)

4. Introduction to Programming in C++ – edX

Introduction to Programming in C++ – edX

The  8-week course is offered by New York University (NYU) on the edX platform. The course introduces the fundamentals and covers all the core concepts required to be a successful C++ developer in the industry. 

All the essential topics such as iteration, decision trees, branching, data types, and expression are covered in-depth with hands-on exercises.

The first module explores the concepts of programming and data structures, and it is advised to take up each module as per the order suggested for the course.

By the end of the course, the learners will be well aware of the concepts such as C++ assignments and their application in program development, basic C++ I/) operations, data and arithmetic operations, expressions using relational operators, logical operators, and the selection and repetition statements. The course modules are:

Week 1 – Hello World

  • First C++ Program

Week 2 – Data Types and Expressions

  • Type Casting
  • Literals
  • The String Class
  • Boolean Expression

Week 3 – Data Type Labs

Week 4 – Branching Statements

  • Absolute Value
  • One-Way if Statements
  • Switch Statements

Week 5 – Branching Labs

Week 6 – Iterative Statements & Functions

  • Syntax
  • Pigeonhole principle
  • Function definition
  • Domain, target, Range
  • One-to-one and onto functions
  • Composition of function
  • Inverse function

Week 7 – Iteration Labs

Week 8 – Final Exam


Instructor: Aspen Olmsted and Itay Tal

Level: Intermediate

Video Lectures: NA

User Review: NA

Price: Free Enrollment (Additional $334 for certification)

5. Become a C++ Developer –

Nanodegree Program – Udacity

The course is available on the Udacity platform. The nano degree program is equivalent to a specialization course on other platforms. In this course, the learners get exposure to real-world projects to build their hands-on experience.

The projects include building a route planner using Openstreet map data, writing a process monitor program for the computer and implementing intelligent pointers, and building a multi-threaded traffic simulator.

At the end of the course, the learners will build strong programming skills and code their C++ applications. The prerequisite of the course includes intermediate knowledge of any programming language. Additional offerings of this course include technical mentor support, project review, and feedback from experienced reviewers from the industry. The course modules include:

  • C++ Foundations
  • Object-Oriented Programming
  • Memory Management
  • Concurrency
  • Capstone project

Instructor: David Silver, Stephen Welch, and Andreas Haja

Level: Intermediate

Video Lectures: NA

User Review: 4.6/5

Price: Monthly- $310 Approximately, and Yearly- $1064 Approximately

6. Beginning C++ Programming: From Beginner to Beyond – Udemy

Beginning C++ Programming- From Beginner to Beyond – Udemy

The course is available on Udemy. This course is suitable for learners looking to gain entry into the field of software development. The learners will be able to build their knowledge of industry practices for development.

This course covers all the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of C++ programming.  The course explores the essentials of modern C++ object-oriented programming and the STL skills required for games, systems, and app development. Some of the critical areas covered in this program include:

  • Looping with while, do/while for, range-based for statements, and recursion
  • Performing calculations and displaying results
  • Functions
  • Pointers
  • Using existing classes and creating objects
  • Creating your classes
  • Using Basic Standard Template Library classes such as Vector
  • Constructors and Destructors
  • Copy and Move semantics, including Copy constructors, move constructors, and copy and move assignment
  • How to overload operators
  • Using inheritance and class hierarchies
  • Using Polymorphic functions and dynamic binding
  • Using smart pointers
  • Using stream I/O
  • An introduction to the C++ STL
  • An introduction to Exception Handling
  • The course curriculum has the following modules:
  • Introduction
  • Installation and Setup
  • Getting started
  • Structure of a C++ program
  • Variables and Constants
  • Arrays and Vectors
  • Statement and Operators
  • Controlling Program Flow
  • Characters and Strings
  • Functions
  • Pointers and References
  • OOP-Classes and Objects
  • Operator Overloading
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism
  • Smart Pointers
  • I/O and Streams
  • The Standard Template Library
  • Source Code

Instructor: Tim Buchalka’s Learn Programming Academy and Dr. Frank Mitropoulos

Level: Beginner/Intermediate

Video Lectures: 277 video lectures

User Review: 4.6/5

Price: $8.9 Approximately (Pricing may vary as per the region)

7. C++ Advanced Topics – LinkedIn Learning

C++ Advanced Topics – LinkedIn Learning

The course is designed to cover complex aspects of the core programming language and intelligent pointers to move semantics. The learners will gain a strong understanding of the concepts such as classes and objects and class inheritance.

Additionally, the concepts of intelligent pointers and their uses for managing memory allocation are covered in-depth. The course also explores copy and swap idiom, lambda functions, working with unit test libraries, and creating a custom string library. All of the concepts are covered with practical implementations to gain a deeper understanding of the concepts. The course modules are:


Advanced programming with C++

Classes and Objects

  • Defining a class
  • Data members
  • Function members
  • Constructors and destructors
  • Explicit constructors
  • Namespaces
  • Self-referencing pointer
  • Operator overloads
  • Non-member operators
  • Conversion operators
  • Increment and decrement operators
  • Allocating object memory
  • Functions

Class Inheritance

  • Overview
  • Simple inheritance
  • Accessing the base class
  • Friendship and multiple inheritances
  • Polymorphism

Smart Pointers

  • Why smart pointers?
  • Unique Pointer
  • Shared Pointer
  • Weak Pointer
  • Using a custom delete
  • Choosing a smart pointer

Move Semantics

  • What is move semantics?
  • Understanding Lvalues and rvalues
  • Using std:: move
  • The move constructor
  • The move assignment operator
  • The copy and swap idiom
  • Rule of five

Lambda Functions

  • Lambda syntax
  • Captures
  • Polymorphic lambdas

The C Preprocessor

  • About the preprocessor
  • Macros as constants
  • Including files
  • Conditional compilation
  • Defining macros
  • Including files only once

Unit Tests

  • The importance of unit tests
  • A unit test library

Custom String Library

  • Why non-STL strings?
  • Overview of BOWstring
  • Constructors
  • Memory management
  • Operators
  • Utility methods
  • Find and replace
  • Splitting strings
  • Using the BOWstring library


Instructor: Bill Weinman

Level: Advanced

Video Lectures: 55 video lectures

User Review: NA

Price: 1-Month free trial (Charges may apply after the trial period ends)

8. Mastering 4 Critical Skills Using C++17 – Udemy

Mastering 4 Critical Skills Using C++17 – Udemy

The course is available on the Udemy platform. This course is designed to build upon the basic to advanced modern C++ syntax and exposure to projects using modern C++ coding. It is among the highest-rated courses on the platform and builds problem-solving and project-building skills for learners. 

This course includes more than 6 projects and a strong emphasis on providing practical experience. The takeaways from the course include a complete understanding of critical concepts such as:

  • Solid understanding of programming concepts using C++
  • Fundamentals: Variables, Loops, Control Flow, Functions, Recursive Functions, Arrays
  • Advanced Topics: Pointers, STL, Templates, Headers, and Includes, Exception Handling, Compilation Process, Debugging
  • Object-Oriented Programming (OOP): Classes, Objects, Inheritance, Polymorphism, Operator Overloading
  • Modern Topics in C++11/C++14/C++17: Move Semantics, Perfect Forwarding, Variadic Template, Folding expressions, Smart Pointers, Lambda Expressions, Wrappers (Optional, Variant, Any), Uniform initialization, noexcept, Structured Binding, Nested namespaces, misc.
  • OOP: Member initializer, Defaulted and Deleted Functions, delegating constructors, Inheriting Constructors
  • STL: Forward list, Initializer list, Array, Unordered containers
  • Design: Several principles and patterns are embedded in the homework & projects
  • Algorithmic (problem-solving) and applications
  • Software design concerns.
  • Software Engineering & Design Patterns
  • Implementation of OOP concepts
  • Data Structure course and Algorithms
  • Use of C++ for frontend or backend
  • Insights into game development and embedded development.

Instructor: Dr. Mostafa Saad Ibrahim

Level: Advanced

Video Lectures: 356 video lectures

User Review: 4.8/5

Price: $50 Approximately (Charges may vary according to the region)

9. Complete Modern C++ (C++ 11/14/17) – Udemy

Complete Modern C++ (C++ 11:14:17) – Udemy

The course is offered on the Udemy platform. The course explores the concepts of C++ as an object-oriented language comprising modern features. In this course, the learners will experience working with both old and new C++ concepts with practical examples.

The course builds insights into building complex programs using classes, operators, overloading, composition, inheritance, and polymorphism as some of the advanced concepts. The prerequisite of the course includes the experience of working with a programming language. 


Instructor: Umar Lone

Level: Advanced

Video Lectures: 221 video lectures

User Review: 4.5/5

Price: $6.2 Approximately (Charges may vary according to the region)

10. Design Patterns in Modern C++ – Udemy

Design Patterns in Modern C++ – Udemy

The course is available on Udemy. It is designed for C++ developers and is an advanced course.  The course provides a comprehensive overview of design patterns in modern C++, emphasizing building the learners’ practical knowledge.

The course covers the latest versions of the C++ programming language, modern programming approaches, modern developer tools and pattern variations, and alternative approaches.

The learners will gain mastery in applying and recognizing design patterns, knowledge about the applicability and usability of design patterns, and refactor existing designs to use design patterns.  


Instructor: Dmitri Nesteruk

Level: Advanced

Video Lectures: 130 video lectures

User Review: 4.5/5

Price: $6.2 Approximately (Charges may vary according to the region)

Career Prospects for C++ Developers

With the advent of emerging technologies, many consider C++ to be outdated technology. However, it is untrue as the C++ developers command one of the highest salaries in the IT industry.

C++ programming provides a tremendous amount of functionality for low-level memory management, which is ideal for embedded systems or other forms of devices. Similarly, C++ is used for developing video games and software, and mobile applications. With a wide range of uses, it provides opportunities for C++ developers as:

  • Software Engineer
  • Electronic Engineer
  • DevOps Engineer
  • Game Developer
  • Software Development Manager
  • Application Engineer

Responsibilities of C++ Developer

C++ developers are primarily associated with creating codes that lay the foundation for software or are entirely involved in the developmental stages. C++ developers plan the developmental stage of the program based on the feasibility of the company’s requirements.

Additionally, C++ developers are also working on testing and debugging to ensure the smooth functioning of software or a program to enhance the user experience. Some of the top responsibilities of a C++ developer role include:

  • Managing the process of code releases and updates and associated plug-ins.
  • Implementation and the conception of a software solution as per the requirement.
  • Writing and analyzing codes for project development.
  • Documentation of relevant processes.
  • Improve the quality modules.
  • Identification of any possible bottlenecks.
  • Familiarity with templates in C++.
  • Understanding of embedded systems and their designing.
  • Providing automated scripts for testing purposes and using tools like Selenium IDE.
  • Ability to develop and manage desktop applications.
  • Using Java for managing shared network resources.
  • Using SSIS package for automating the ETL process.
  • Work with reporting with the use of SSRS.
  • Work on migrating data to clients and managing the SQL and database-related tasks for generating reports.
  • Provide configuration solutions for managing application settings related to desktop applications and the backend.
  • Modification of C++ programs for communication of data from the backend to the frontend of Java-based applications.
  • Analyzing existing applications and optimizing the performance.
  • SVN for version management purposes.
  • Ability to perform parallel testing when required.
  • Use of legacy containers.
  • Ability to perform automation testing using TestNG.
  • Implement C++ codes for server APIs.
  • Provide inputs in the product lifecycle management.
  • Work on JavaScript for providing client-side functionality on web pages.
  • Provide HTML and JavaScript functionality for web-based monitoring tasks.
  • Use of Git repository for modification of codes.
  • Using Python and C++ for standalone development tasks for the application server.
  • Coordinate with other teams and share codes through GitHub as a repository.

Salary Trends of C++ Developer Jobs

C++ is widely used across industries for various applications. Therefore, there is a high demand for C++ developers in the job industry. At the same time, it is already known that C++ is used for programming some of the top operating systems that people use today, namely Windows, macOS, and Linux.

Similarly, C++ has its implementation in various graphics-based applications, graphics-heavy applications such as games, and state-of-the-art technologies like computer vision and intelligent devices. This causes a demand for C++ developers across industries, mainly for applications.

According to Indeed, the average base salary for a C++ developer in the United States is $108,561, and it can vary and become higher based on certifications. Experience, educational background, and additional programming skills.

Entry-level C++ developer salary

As per PayScale, the entry-level C++ developer earns $66,058 per year.

Indeed.com Salary Stats

4-8 Years’ Experience: $108,000

8-12 Years: $115,000

12-16 Years: $120,000

16-20 Years: $125,000

20-24 Years: $130,000+

There are several additional benefits offered with the salary packages for senior roles in the company. Another factor that plays a crucial role in the amount of salary being offered is the location.

Certain cities offer a higher salary than the national average or industry trends due to its demand in the particular location and factors like cost of living. C++ developers who have additional knowledge about the hardware aspects alongside the software and programming skills are likely to be rewarded with higher salaries.

As per recent salary trends, 75% of C++ developers in the United States consider their salaries sufficient, considering the cost of living of the location. Some of the complementary skills for a C++ developer that is likely to draw higher salary packages are:

  • The knowledge of Android, OS X, iOS, Windows, and Linux operating systems as C++ is an essential factor of these operating systems, including mobile app development.
  • The familiarity of databases such as MySQL and MongoDB for the current generation of technologies and database requirements.
  • Well-equipped with the knowledge of memory management.
  • Familiarity with network-based concepts such as TCP/IP protocols.
  • Good command over continuous integration-related concepts.
  • Complete understanding of project management methodologies.
  • Familiarity with data structures and algorithms to work efficiently on complex problems.
  • A good understanding of software development lifecycle.
  • Proficiency with other programming languages like Java and Python.

Most Sought After Skills of a C++ Developer

  • Python (High Demand) -14.2%
  • Java (High Demand)- 9 %
  • C++ (High (Demand)- 8.6%
  • JavaScript (High Demand)- 5.7%
  • Machine Learning Algorithms (High Demand)-4.6%
  • Other Skills- 57.9%

High Demand

  • Windows 
  • GIT
  • Perl
  • Data Structures
  • STL 
  • Hardware
  • Software Development
  • Code Reviews 
  • SQL 

Moderate Demand

  • Version Control
  • Scrum
  • API
  • Design Patterns
  • Jenkins
  • Jira
  • OS
  • Http
  • Business Process
  • SVN
  • Multithreading

Low Demand

  • XML
  • GitHub
  • QA
  • User Interface
  • Unix
  • Linux
  • Android
  • GUI
  • Unit Tests
  • TCP/IP
  • SDLC
  • GDB and COM
  • Server Side
  • UML
  • UDP
  • Management System
  • POS

Although the skills are highlighted as highly demanded or low in demand, it is crucial to understand that these skills fluctuate as per market requirements.

While some skills are listed as low in demand, they might rise up to a higher point at a certain period. Hence, it is essential to be equipped with as many skills as possible.

Another critical aspect is the communication skills as a C++ developer is constantly required to communicate and pass the ideas across to the team and clients to explain the outcome or a possible result of a specific approach.

Preferred Qualification (Besides Educational Background) for C++ Developers

  • Certified Scrum Master
  • CIRO
  • CompTIA Security+
  • RHCE
  • MCP
  • CompTIA Linux+
  • CEH
  • Six Sigma Certification

Additional Technologies to Master for C++ Developer

C++ developers are constantly working on a wide range of tools for software development. Such tools can range from high-level languages such as Node.js, Python to code management with the likes of Git and SVN. Additionally, the working knowledge of XML and NoSQL is considered a big plus.


Essential Interview Questions for C++ Developer Jobs

Define C++?

C++ is an object-oriented programming language that is a superset of the C programming language. It also comprises additional features as opposed to the C language.

Difference between Reference and Pointer?

Reference is a temporary variable, and it can be used directly to access the value. Also, once a reference variable is assigned, it leaves no possibility of reassigning it with another address value. Additionally, a null value can’t be assigned to the reference variable.

On the other hand, Pointer is a variable that stores the address of a variable. Pointer variables need an indirection operator to access the values. It is an independent variable. Therefore, it can be reassigned to point to other objects. Also, a null value can be assigned to the reference variable.

What are the various types of OOPS concepts in C++?

The various OOPs concepts are class, object, polymorphism, inheritance, data binding, encapsulation, and abstraction, forming the entire OOPS concepts.

What is Namespace in C++?

Namespace is a logical part of the code which is used to stop any naming conflict. It is also used to define the scope of where the identifiers such as variable or class and function are declared. The primary purpose of namespace is to remove ambiguity which can occur when different tasks consist of the same name.

Define std in C++?

Std is a default namespace standard that is used in C++ programming.

What is a class template?

A class template is a name assigned to a generic class.

What is Encapsulation?

Encapsulation is a technique for binding the data and the functions that are acting on data in a class. No outside method can access the data, and only the member function can access the data if the data member is kept private.

Define Polymorphism. How many types of polymorphisms are there?

Polymorphism signifies that more than one function with the same function name can exist with different functionalities. There are two types of which are-compile time polymorphism and run-time polymorphism.

What is a Friend function?

The friend function is like a friend of the class. It is mainly used for accessing private and protected members of the class. However, the friend function is not considered the class member but needs to be listed in the class definition.

Also, the non-member function cannot access the private data of the class. In specific scenarios, the non-member function requires access to the data, and that is where the friend function is used to access the private data of the class.

Define overloading in C++?

In a specific instance, when a single object behaves in multiple ways, it is termed overloading. A single object comprises the same name but with different versions of the same function. Also, C++ allows specifying more than one definition for a function name or an operator within the same scope.

This phenomenon is called function overloading and operator overloading. Operator overloading is used for functions such as member function, non-member function, and friend function.

On the other hand, function overloading occurs as a compile-time polymorphism that defines a family of functions with similar names. However, the function would perform various operations based on the argument list in the function call. Besides, the function that is to be invoked depends on the number of arguments and their type in the argument list.


Learning a C++ programming language is an excellent platform to bolster the knowledge base and begin a developer career. The proficiency of C++ becomes handy to master other high-level programming languages with ease.

Besides, C++ developers are among the ones that have a solid understanding of the programming environment. C++ developers are also considered an integral part of an organization as they collaborate with stakeholders to determine the application requisites or carve the path for software deployment and maintenance of the software systems.

Additionally, C++ developers are at the front-line of operations in an organization as they interact with clients to understand the requirements to devise a strategy to approach the application development.

Similarly, they are continually associated with software optimization and innovation-related tasks. C++ developers continue to be among the highest paid jobs in the industry.

For those speculating on if the language will survive in the past paced technical advancements, it is evident as the C++ programming language is thriving despite the recent innovations and development of other programming languages.

It can be rightly termed as the programming language that forms the strong foundations to master the newer programming languages.

Another critical factor in opting for a C++ developer career is its longevity in the industry which states that this programming language and the job roles will continue to evolve and exist in the long run. Therefore, it is the most opportune moment for all the aspirants to equip themselves with C++ language skills and embark on a successful career path as a software developer.

Apple’s iCloud Drive is a cloud storage service that’s ideal for Apple users. Although not as good as Google Drive or Microsoft OneDrive, there’s still a lot to see here. As with all Apple products, integration is flawless, ensuring a rich user experience.

What Is Apple iCloud Drive?

Apple’s iCloud Drive is a cloud-based file storage and syncing service that is mostly designed for use with other Apple devices and apps. However, it can still be used as a web browser or with non-Apple computers. iCloud Drive is simply the folder-syncing part of Apple’s cloud service, iCloud.

Once you start up iCloud Drive, all of your files get automatically synced to any and all devices that are signed in using your account. This includes all iOS devices and Macs, as well as Windows PCs.

The only exception is Android. So if you’re hoping to incorporate iCloud Drive with, say, your Samsung smartphone, you’ll have to use a different cloud service. Apple’s iCloud Drive allows you to make folders for all of your files while providing online storage for Apple’s many productivity apps, such as Keynote, Pages, and Numbers.

What’s more, iCloud Drive is incredibly well-designed. Although it’s not quite as capable as Google Drive or Microsoft OneDrive, iCloud Drive is still a breeze to use, especially if you’re used to Apple’s operations.

So, who is iCloud Drive for? Well, if you regularly use an Apple device and are reasonably versed in Apple’s office productivity apps, you’ll find iCloud Drive to be an appealing companion. This is largely due to the fact that it integrates so well with them. Plus, it supports all of Apple’s platforms.

Its integration with Apple’s robust ecosystem is near-perfect. So much so that you may have used it and not even known it. And as mentioned, you can use iCloud Drive reasonably well with Windows-based computers and on the internet.

But again, Android users will be better off sticking with Google’s Drive or Microsoft’s OneDrive. You’ll get many of the same features anyway, so it’s not like you’ll be missing anything. Plus, most agree that those two offer more than iCloud Drive.

Ease of Use

You need at least Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite or iOS 8 to use Apple iCloud Drive. And if you’re on a PC, you’ll need at least Windows 7. And because iCloud Drive apps aren’t offered on Android, Apple’s cloud service is less versatile than Microsoft OneDrive or Google Drive.

If you’re wanting to set up iCloud Drive on a Windows PC, doing so is as easy as any other syncing service. First, you’ll need to download and install the iCloud control panel app. This serves to let you create iCloud Drive and Photos folders under your computer’s main user folder. Once installed, you’re ready to start syncing. Therefore, you’ll have to create an Apple ID account or sign in to an existing one.

Whenever you install iCloud Drive, you’ll get a system tray icon, as well. From there, you’ll be able to access and open special folders. Please note that these are made up of custom icons, not typical folder-sharing icons.

Any files that you choose to add to your new iCloud Drive folder (or subfolders) will now appear on all other iOS devices and computers that have iCloud Drive enabled (you will, however, have to be signed in to be detected).

If you own a Mac, it’s important to note that iCloud functions slightly differently. As such, it isn’t quite as straightforward as other popular syncing services. However, since iCloud Drive is part of the operating system, you don’t have to download or install any apps.

If you’re running a new Mac, its initial setup activation will automatically walk you through the configuration of iCloud. But if you need to enable it on its own, you’ll have to go into the System Preferences, then choose iCloud. From there, you’ll have to sign in with your Apple ID and select “iCloud Drive.”

After doing this, you will see an icon under Favorites in Finder. This is a lot like a connected drive or folder. What’s more, iCloud Drive can also act as a backup. To use it as such, simply navigate to Preferences and check “Desktop & Documents.”

From there, you’ll be able to drag files to your new iCloud Drive, manage the local documents folder, and create sub-folders. And if you use Keynote or other Apple apps that make use of iCloud Drive for its storage, you will see associated folders have appeared, as well.

The only downside of this is that you can’t see iPhone backups and other data that might be using your storage. As such, you don’t get an accurate reading of how much space is truly left. You’ll have to go elsewhere to find this information. Fortunately, it isn’t too difficult.

Over at iCloud’s System Preferences, you can see exactly how much storage is being used and where. To do this, simply hover your mouse over any storage progress bar (with the colored blocks). From there, you’ll be able to see what’s using your iCloud Drive storage.

Once you’re in this setting, you’ll also be able to choose whether to include data that are associated with other programs that are presently installed on your system. This is ideal for things like Preview, TextEdit, QuickTime Player, and so on.

Apple Photos is handled separately. This is due to it being under iCloud rather than iCloud Drive. That said, you can always upload your images directly to iCloud Drive. However, they will still use up the same storage.

Understandably, some users get confused over the differences between iCloud Drive and standard iCloud. To simplify things, Photos, Notes, Reminders, and Contacts all get backed up to iCloud. Your data from TextEdit, Mail, and iMovie is located in iCloud Drive.

With that said, there is a problem with how fast your free allotment gets eaten up. This is especially the case if you’ve chosen to sync your Mac and iPhone. And it won’t take long for additional storage alert messages to start showing up on your computer and phone.

You will therefore need to choose to stop device backups or upgrade to one of the other storage plans. As you can imagine, you’re not given many other viable solutions to combat this storage limit concern. And as such, you’re pretty much forced to take Apple up on its upgrade option.

Another notable absence is the ability to save versions. This becomes especially noticeable when you compare iCloud Drive to Google Drive or any other cloud storage solution services. You’ll almost always find a way to save versions, but not so with iCloud Drive.


One thing that is likely to appeal to many users is the fact that iCloud isn’t weighed down with a bunch of useless features. Quite the opposite is true, in fact. Apple iCloud instead focuses on giving its users a relatively streamlined cloud service.

With that said, there are likely to be just as many users looking for something with more features. If that’s your preference, you might want to look into Google Suite.

Now, although Apple iCloud isn’t exactly robust, it has the uncanny ability to work so well that you never even notice it’s there. And if you’re a Windows user, you get a handy desktop client that lets you sync folders and files from your computer’s desktop.

Not only that, but there’s also a nice web-based interface that gives you even more options to work with, as well as the ability to use file sharing with other users.

As with all Apple products, iCloud excels in its security. With it, you’re offered two-factor authentication during log-in for greater protection. You can also use it to store a litany of different file types, including DOCX, PSD, PDF, and PPTX.

As touched on earlier, the only drawback here is the fact that there isn’t Android support. Sure, there’s a serious lack of advanced features to mess around with, but Android support would have been a nice addition.

So you won’t find an app available for iCloud Drive on Google’s Play Store. Furthermore, trying to use iCloud’s web interface on mobile devices is an exercise in patience. So for many users, that’s out, too.


Whether or not you’ve noticed it, if you’re an Apple user, iCloud is a core feature that comes built into your operating system. As such, your folders, files, and app data is automatically synced with the cloud. You don’t have to do anything special to get this to happen, as it’s all part of the Apple experience.

There also isn’t a separate iCloud app to be found on Apple devices. This is because it’s ingeniously worked into the cloud ecosystem. Moreover, you’ll also find iCloud Drive to be a part of your system. As a section within iCloud, you can use Drive to store whatever files and folders you choose. And you can do it in just about any format.

If you’re a Windows user, you don’t be able to sync just any file you please to iCloud. You can, however, use the previously mentioned desktop client to sync to the cloud. Once again, Android users are left out in the cold here, as there isn’t an official app or client.

Instead, you have to navigate via the web interface, which again, is a cumbersome, tiring venture that is better left alone than attempted. Seriously, there are many other cloud storage service options available that will serve you well.

In fact, better than iCloud Drive. Check out Google Drive, Microsoft OneDrive, or any of the other available cloud storage services. You won’t be disappointed.

Apple iCloud Drive Pricing Overview

If you’re an existing Apple user with an iOS device, Apple iCloud initially gives you 5GB of free storage. In fact, this is the exact same amount of storage that you get with Microsoft OneDrive as a new user.

Keep in mind that other iCloud services are counted against your 5GB allotment, not just your iCloud Drive files. This includes any of your photos, as well as backups of your Apple devices, such as an iPhone or iPad.

If you don’t have an Apple device and you want to use iCloud Drive, you only get 1GB of free storage. If you’re like most people, 1GB isn’t going to get you anywhere. As such, you’ll need to upgrade your basic plan to one of the paid monthly plan accounts.

These plans start at 50GB for $0.99 a month. If you need more storage than 50GB, $2.99 will bump you up to 200GB. Finally, for $9.99 a month, you get 2TB of storage space. By comparison, Google’s One pricing plans mirror Apple’s pricing structure.

Ironically, Apple recently introduced “Apple One.” Sound familiar? This service essentially acts just like Google One, where all of the pricing plans are lumped under one umbrella. And in case you were wondering, Google One has been out since 2018, whereas Apple One rolled out in 2020.

Under Apple One, you get access to Apple’s other digital media services, like Apple Music, Apple TV+, or Arcade. Plans start at $14.95 a month for a single user. With it, you get all of the aforementioned services, plus 50GB of iCloud storage. Honestly, one would expect to get more than just 50GB for $15 a month.

If you want the Apple One Family Plan, it’ll cost you an extra $5 a month. So for $19.95 per month, you’ll be able to share with five users, along with 200GB storage. And then there’s the Premier plan, which costs $29.95 a month.

Things look better here, as you get 2TB of storage, as well as access to Apple Fitness+ and News+. It’s worth noting that these plans offer decent savings when you compare them to purchasing each service separately.

However, you don’t get a discount for signing up on an annual plan. If you’re familiar with other cloud storage services like Google Drive, you do get this discount. It’s another example of Apple’s iCloud Drive not quite measuring up to the competition.

That said, iCloud Drive is still fairly comparable to Google’s Drive and Microsoft’s OneDrive, largely because all three are juggernauts in the cloud storage industry.

For comparison, Google Drive starts you off with 15GB of storage. Although what actually counts against your data allotment can be tricky at times, it’s still leaps and bounds better than Apple’s 1GB and 5GB offerings.

Security and Privacy

As mentioned, Apple’s security and privacy are incredible. Although there isn’t client-side encryption, the rest of the protection and privacy features are world-class and better than just about any other service.

Any data that you have stored on the cloud is encrypted, with iCloud featuring two-factor authentication. This is a must-have security measure for anyone who values their privacy. If you choose to activate this option, you’ll not only have to enter your user name and password to log in but also a special real-time code that Apple sends to your registered device.

Without it, you won’t be able to access your account. It’s highly recommended that you activate this feature and keep it turned on at all times.

Customer Support

Apple iCloud gives you access to a comprehensive support system. It is complete with an extensive knowledge base that is chock-full of helpful information. You can also access Apple’s community forum and call into customer service (available during regular working hours).

If you’re a Premium member, you get access to even more features, such as online chat support and a 24-hour hotline. Being a Premium member just means you own an Apple device, such as a Mac, iPhone, or iPad.


The user interface is your typical Apple fare, which is to say excellent. iCloud Drive is a breeze to navigate and use, making it ideal for those who are unfamiliar with cloud service in general and need to learn the ropes.

And like other Apple products, integration is seamless. Regardless of the Apple device you’re using, you’re going to find that iCloud Drive is a cinch to use. So much so that you might not even know it’s there.


The free storage that is offered is pretty paltry compared to the competition. And if you’re not an Apple user with an Apple device, it’s even worse (only 1GB).

There’s still no Android support to speak of. Yes, you can always use Apple’s web interface, but it’s virtually unusable on a small screen.


There are a plethora of alternatives available for you to try out, especially if you’re an Android user. Google Drive is a phenomenal cloud storage service, with lots of goodies and features that you won’t find on Apple iCloud Drive.

And if you’re a Windows user, Microsoft OneDrive works incredibly well for a comprehensive cloud storage experience. Just as files app options from Apple work flawlessly with Apple devices, the same is true for Windows and OneDrive.

Another option is IDrive. This is a cloud storage solution that offers cheap service and tons of features to keep you busy. There are many other apps worth checking out, but these are the top three.


Is iCloud Drive any good?

If you’re an avid Apple user, yes. There’s enough here to ensure a seamless user experience, although those looking for robust features might want to look elsewhere.

Is iCloud Drive reliable?

Quite so. Apple excels at delivering working software with little hiccups along the way. As an Apple user, you’re going to feel right at home with iCloud Drive. Even newcomers will appreciate the reliability and ease-of-use of iCloud Drive. It’s the perfect service to test the waters of cloud storage, although the free storage offerings are a bit paltry.

How safe is iCloud Drive?

Very much so. Apple dominates in the security category. When you use any Apple product or service, iCloud Drive included, you can trust that you’re getting a safe experience that protects your privacy.

In fact, iCloud Drive is safer than many other cloud storage services. If you’re at all concerned with your privacy and data, you can’t go wrong with choosing iCloud Drive.

Is Apple iCloud Drive free?

Yes. As a new user who already owns an Apple device, you get 5GB of free storage. But if you’re not an Apple user and you don’t own an Apple device, you only get 1GB of free storage.

How much does iCloud Drive cost?

For $0.99 a month, you get 50GB of cloud storage. For $2.99 a month, you can bump that up to 200GB of cloud storage. If you need even more storage space on the cloud, $9.99 a month will get you 2TB.

This is comparable to Google Drive and many other cloud storage solutions. So if you’re looking for the best deal on cloud storage, it’s about the same across the board as the competition.

Is it worth paying for Apple iCloud storage?

As long as you’re already an existing Apple device user, Apple iCloud Drive is a viable option. You’ll find that it works seamlessly with other Apple platforms, giving you a rich user experience that you barely even notice is there.

However, non-Apple users can find better options for their needs. Although the pricing is about the same, you’ll get many other features not offered on iCloud Drive. So if you’re one who appreciates having a lot of features to tinker around with, Google Drive or Microsoft OneDrive will serve you well with plenty to keep you busy.

Are iCloud and iCloud Drive the same thing?

iCloud Drive is the files and folder subset of iCloud.

Having a job refers to being employed in some small, medium or large organization and earning money for offering your services in a given timeframe. On the other hand, your career is a combination of various elements and job is one of them.

When you say, you have a career, it means you have a degree from some reputed institution, your professional experience and your job in your field of interest and all that helps you keep advancing in terms of salary, expertise and professional skills.

You may consider playing a video game with various phases and levels. Your job is just like one level of this game whereas all the levels and phases along with the punishments and rewards in the game make your career. When one does not have a career, still they may have a job but this person may be wandering in between the jobs which may be irrelevant to one another. This is why experts recommend career counseling for the students before they reach college or university level education.

Specifically, career counseling is necessary to help the students realize their field of interest before they get admissions in college or university for professional education. Without any doubt, realization of the area of interest for the students becomes the foundation for their career. And professional education plays an important role to lead the students to pursue the decided career path.

If students are not guided properly to choose a career path then because of their lack of education they are more likely to wander away from the real career path for them. Therefore, if someone is guided properly, he is more likely to have a bright career with relevant professional education, experience as well as jobs in that particular field a.k.a. career path. 

Job vs Career

The key differences between a job (regardless of being full-time or part-time) and a career are many but the goal that you set to achieve is always different in both cases. You have a short term goal to achieve while having a job. Earning money to bear your monthly expenses or saving some bucks for your vacations can be your goal to achieve with the help of your job.

Whereas when it comes to career, it means your education, jobs, special training programs, and experience help you grow professionally while advancing in responsibilities and paycheck at the same time.  So you are the one who has to decide whether you will let your education and experience lead you somewhere or you will like to keep switching jobs with no career planning?

Basically your attitude tells whether you are a career oriented or a job oriented person. 

  • Long term goals are the top priority for those who are more concerned about their career. They tend to plan their working life in a way that can lead them to make something good happen in the future.
  • Job oriented people prefer the salary over the type of job opportunities and they target to earn more from the very beginning. 
  • Those who are career oriented, they are likely to accept the little money as a starter and will not fall prey to the higher paychecks. Rather they always browse the job listings within their area of interest and profession. Finally smaller paychecks lead them to better job opportunities and great levels of satisfaction.  

The concept of job

You may be employed in some organization on full-time, part-time and short term basis to support your basic needs. You may be offered an hourly wage or a decided paycheck on a weekly or monthly basis instead of receiving a monthly salary with some employment benefits.

It may be a requirement of the job for you to learn some particular skills to perform your duties but not necessarily you may have to have a professional degree, certificates or training.

This is how usually businesses hire the services of employees to perform their assigned tasks while paying them a certain amount of money. It can be more or less similar to the freelancing where the employers do the project based hiring and they only are concerned with the required skills to perform the task instead of the professional degree of the workers. 

A job can be offered in the form of a short or long term project as well. For instance, a business needs your services to replace or repair the entire furniture in their office with some office décor. They will sign a contract with you to complete this project within a set time frame.

You will be required to accomplish all the tasks decided in the contract and you will get paid as decided in accordance with terms of agreement. 

Lets take another example. For instance, you have developed bookkeeping skills so businesses from different industries can hire you for short term or long term projects to perform bookkeeping for them. In a certain time period, you will be required to complete the assigned task and receive a paycheck instead of receiving a salary along with benefits that these businesses offer their permanent employees.

The concept of career

Your career is like a long journey with a number of milestones to achieve. Your career is mainly powered by your passion. Your professional ambitions and goals work as the milestones of your career. However, to achieve these milestones in your career path, you may have to have certain qualifications such as a particular level of education and training.

Professionals who pursue careers are offered salaries with employment benefits, retirement plans, stock options, bonuses and pensions. These professionals are rewarded with benefits beyond monetary benefits such as satisfaction at the workplace, personal pride as well as self-worth. Hence your career might last up to a certain age or even the entire life and you could have a number jobs in your career under several employments while you progress through your chosen career path.

Can your job affect your career?

Yes, definitely your job does affect your career. On your career path, you will come across many job opportunities and you have to be smart to get hands on only the most appropriate and relevant opportunities.

Don’t be the victim of itching palm as some irrelevant jobs may bring you more money in comparison to the jobs in your own field of interest. So better stay on track and don’t leave your career path.

There are various factors attached with the job which may affect your career negatively or positively. On top of that, employers really don’t like to hire people who come with experience in a variety of fields because these types of people can’t be considered experts in one particular field. 

Keep learning from each job

You learn from every job and that knowledge can be applied to your future jobs. While working within the same organization at different positions, you gain knowledge, skills, expertise and experience. Same can happen if you have been working with different employers in different roles.

All these expertise and experiences will pay off for sure when you are hired by some employer who needs a unique set of skills that you possess specifically. 

For example, you have been serving an organization as a customer care representative where you have learnt to deal with difficult situations that you come across with clients and customers. While working at the same position, you could have an opportunity to polish your communication skills.

Absolutely your employer will love to offer you a promotion as a team lead or a trainer for the customer care representatives to help and guide them how to better handle the challenging situations while handling the customers’ issues.

Also you may be offered some opportunity by some other organization who needs someone with great communication skills. So if you keep learning more and more skills then possibilities for you to get better jobs will be never-ending. 

Make use of the networking opportunities

If you are smart enough to develop professional relationships with your colleagues, clients and the professionals in your field of interest then you can quickly climb the ladder of your career path.

Develop relationships with professionals, keep communicating productively and don’t hesitate to offer help if you can. This is the best way for you to provide yourself with the ability to reach your professional contacts throughout your career without any hassle. 

Career consultants and experts are of the view that more than 80% professionals get job opportunities with the help of their professional networks. Your professional contacts can assist you more than you can imagine. They can offer you advice on where to look for relevant job opportunities or how to alter your resume as well as cover letters to pursue a particular job opportunity.

Not only can they offer you job leads but they can even provide you with insider information about new job openings with your prospective employer. Apart from that they can be of help to give you referrals to secure a position in an organization which is close to your heart. 

Managing your professional network is not rocket science. Following tips and tricks will help you better manage your professional network:

  • Make WhatsApp and FaceBook groups and add all the contacts you think can be beneficial for you to land some job opportunities in future.
  • Always include the right people. There shouldn’t be a place in your network for playful people so only add serious and productive individuals in your network.
  • Stay in touch continuously and share the useful information that can help the job seekers. Also encourage others to practice the same.
  • Keep all the details of the individuals, who they are, where they live, the organization they serve, etc.

Hard work always pays off

Your career can be affected by your current job in many different ways. So don’t go to your office from 9 to 5 only to spend your time for nothing rather work hard and go beyond doing bare minimum. You need to do something different to standout in the eyes of your employer. Your consistency to produce flawless high quality work and willingness to learn will bring you more job opportunities

Hence your hard work may result in promotion within the same organization to some higher position that will lead you to achieve your career goal. Or you may be offered a pay raise by your employer for your extraordinary performance. On the other hand, you may be rewarded by your employer in terms of a great referral if you wish to join some other organization.

Job hopping

Job hopping is a pattern of changing the jobs quickly to be an individual every once or twice in a year or two. Usually if an individual spends less than two years with one employer and jumps to some other job opportunity for a pay raise or promotion, this individual is known as a job hopper.

However, recent trends in the job market shows that more than 51% of the employed individuals switch the jobs before they complete one year with one employer. Quitting the jobs in such a case does not happen because of the company closure or layoff rather it happens because of the personal desire of the individual to earn better.

Lets look into some advantages as well as some drawbacks of the job hopping. 

Advantages of job hopping

  • Diversity in your professional experience is something that you gain while you switch the jobs quickly. It may help you develop an incredible blend of skills that can lead you to serve your future clients better.
  • Your enhanced exposure with multiple employers in limited time will enable you to develop better skills in comparison to someone who is serving one employer for years and years.
  • Better chances to develop a powerful network of professionals because you will be working with a number of colleagues serving every employer.
  • Job hopping can be the best way to quickly climb your career ladder. So you will definitely be able achieve your career goal sooner than your seniors who stick to serve one employer for decades.  

Drawbacks of job hopping

  • As being a job hopper, you are less likely to be relied upon by your prospective employer. They will be reluctant to hire you as you are expected to leave this job as soon as you are offered somewhat better pay by any other organization.
  • Since you are considered the least loyal employee by the employer for being a job hopper, you will be laid off at the very first place when the company is going through crises. In that case, get ready for job search.
  • What you will be lacking as being a job hopper is the long term impact on your career. Since you don’t stick to serving one organization for a longer period of time, it means rarely you will be promoted within the same organization.
  • Job hopping hinders in developing long term professional relationships which means you will have difficulty in creating reliable contacts. It will translate into not having enough referrals that can vouch for your talent.
  • You are more likely to be thought out as a least reliable employee because the employers tend to consider that you are not committed to achieve the organizational goals. Famous career consultants suggest that for better career growth, one should serve an organization at least three to five years. 
  • When you will be looking for job opportunities, definitely you will be in contact with several recruitment agencies and different businesses. One can bet that your resume will be at the bottom of the pile of resumes and that will be just because they are not willing to trust you.

How can a wrong job affect your career?

Be careful when you land a new job. Research very well and know everything about the business organization you are going to join soon. Not only search online information related to the working lifestyle and atmosphere of the workplace offered by your new employer but try finding some sources in the organization to get insider information.

Lets take an example of switching the job by an individual who is offered a better salary along with employment benefits. But after joining the organization, it is revealed that the working environment is awful.

There is no team spirit because management keeps promising the employees but delivers what equals to nothing. Employees are not given their due respect and complaints are made by the management about the employees out loud. 

You spend the first week, just trying to figure out who has the same goals to achieve as of yours and you can’t find anyone. You try matching your goals with the organizational goals and you failed to do so as they don’t have any particular goals. Therefore you don’t expect to learn anything in such a weird type of workplace. 

Slowly you learn that people in such a working environment are led by fear. This is exactly what is known as feared-based culture. In this type of working environment you always have fear of being watched closely.

Instead of appreciating your hard work, they keep on checking the time you logged in your system and how much time you spent to do your lunch and what time you signed off. Doesn’t that sound ridiculous? 

Therefore, watch your steps and be very careful when you are in between jobs or you are resigning from one job to have another one. This one wrong job will ruin your peace of mind, will affect your productivity negatively and will inculcate wrong approach towards the job. So you may end up adopting the wrong habits of your colleagues unintentionally.

Since these types of organizations exist in the market place and because of their bad reputation, the employees of such organizations are banned from being hired by highly reputed businesses. Hence it is advisable not to fall prey of big paychecks offered by such organizations. Rather skip their name quickly in the job listings whenever you come across.

Turning a job into career

To have a career, you need to set up long term goals. While you serve any of your employers, work hard, learn new skills and use all of your energies to achieve your set goals. Here you are provided with some matchless tips to follow if you want to turn your job into a career.

Never stop learning and developing new skills

First of all make a list of milestones that you want to achieve throughout your career. Then list the skills, requirements and qualifications that you require to achieve those milestones. Also you may consult the senior individuals in your career field to double check and correct your list. 

Next step is that you keep learning and developing the skills you have listed regardless you are working part-time or full-time. Keep upgrading your qualification by obtaining academic degrees required to reach your career goal. Always network with individuals who have similar career goals, they can always be of help whenever you need sincere career advice.

Take help of a mentor

Seek help from mentors. Your mentors can be the individuals working in the same career field as of yours. While you work with them, better draft your questions to ask and topics to discuss for instance ‘career development’. Observe their career path to find out if yours can be the same or you think yours should differ a little bit.


There is an interconnection between jobs and careers where lifetime jobs make up your career. After graduation, you may have to start with a very small and entry level job but if you are enthusiastic enough to learn new skills and gain experience while working under pressure, for sure you can quickly reach your career goals. 

An employment verification letter serves the purpose of proof of employment to verify that you have been employed with some organization for a certain time period. You may have to submit this letter to your prospective employer, landlord, insurance company, some government office or a bank.

To obtain this letter you formally have to request your current employer. This employment letter proves the status of your current employment, the total time period you have served your current employer, your salary package and several other details depending on the reason of request from the organization where this letter has to be submitted.

The employment letter is fairly simple and straightforward which means obtaining or writing such a letter should be hassle free.

A current or former employee may be asked by the new employer to provide them with an employment verification letter to confirm their salary and other details. This letter will help the new employer for the background check process of the job applicant.

When you are applying for a mortgage or loan, you may be asked to fill an employment verification form which is a prerequisite used by a third party verification to confirm that the individual is capable of making the required payments regularly. Normally your mortgage application may not be considered if you don’t attach this letter as a proof of income.

Also, your landlord may ask you to provide the employment verification letter in case the monthly rent goes beyond a certain limit. In all these cases, your letter of employment proves that you have been truthful about the salary details, employment status as well as your job title

In some cases, you may directly request your employer to issue an employment verification letter. The company you are working with must have an employment verification form that you can obtain from the human resource department that can be filled by their current and former employees who want to request the verification letter.

Your employer may require you to provide the basic details of your employment through this employment verification request form. Also they may need you to provide them with the reason for obtaining the verification letter. You may be required to list the employment details that you want them to confirm through the employment verification letter

Details in the employment verification letter

Your employment letter will contain the office address of your employer, name of the organization, your job title, your salary and other employment benefits along with the dates of your employment.

This document will also include your personal details such as your date of birth and your national identity number (SSN / Social Security Number in case of the US citizens) for the purpose of identification. Depending on the laws of the state or country of your residence, the information that employers are permitted to disclose always varies.

There may be cases where the employer may ask the employee to sign a release form before they disclose their personal details to some other organization.

How to request an employment verification letter?

Keeping in mind that your employer may take some time to prepare or process the employment letter, you should submit your request with them as soon as the need arises.

Ask your human resource department if you have to fill the employment request form or it can be obtained without any formal request. You should also confirm if they need you to sign a release form as well.

Also it is necessary to get in touch with the people at the human resource department to show your consent so that they can disclose your personal details to your prospective employer as they normally request verification directly from your current employer. 

Depending on the company policies, the human resource department may craft and dispatch the letter to your prospective employer. In some cases, they may also provide your supervisor with some specific format of the employment verification form to fill up and create the employment letter for you. 

Regardless of the person who composes the employment letter, the important thing is that it has been signed and stamped before it is dispatched to the other organization.

If you are responsible to compose an employment verification letter for someone and your company uses some printed letterhead, then make sure that this employment letter must be printed on that letterhead.

Since this letter is very important for your current or former colleague, therefore you must ensure that you have included accurate details in the letter. And double check the name of the contact person, contact number and postal address of the organization before you dispatch the letter.  

If you need to submit a formal request to your current employer to get an employment verification letter then browse some samples of the request forms to better understand how to properly compose them. Following is the sample letter that you can use to compose your own employment verification request. 

Subject: Employment verification letter

Dear Jason,

I am in the process of submitting an application for a mortgage with XYZ (Name of the Lending Company), and they have requested the proof of my employment as well as my income. You are requested to provide them with the details of employment that should include my job title, current salary and dates of employment with ABC (the name of your current employer).

The address of the lender:

XYZ (Name of the lending company),

XXX Broadway,

New York,

NY 10038, United States.

Please be informed that they also accept employment verification through Fax and you can fax them at 000 000 0000. Kindly let me know, if you want me to provide you with any other details that you need to process my employment letter.

Thank you very much!

Susan A. Anthony,

Communication Engineer,

ABC (Name of your current employer)

Requesting an employment letter to check the employment history of a job applicant

You are the recruitment or human resource manager and want to request an employment letter from the current employers of the job applicants who have applied to fill various positions in your organization. So you can prepare a generic format of the letter and then make amendments in accordance with the types of employment and positions in your organization they have applied for.

Here is a sample letter that you can use for your convenience:

(Contact details of the recipient along with date)

Dear Mr./Ms. (name of the recipient),

Mr. (name of the applicant) has applied for the position of (job title offered to the applicant) at (name of your organization) and he/she has mentioned the name of your organization in their employment history. We would like to seek your assistance to verify some of the details that he / she has provided on his / her resume.

We shall be grateful if you can provide us the following details about (applicant’s name) in the form of an employment verification letter:

Dates of the employment:

Title (s) of his / her job:

Weekly / Bi-weekly / Annual Salary of (name of the applicant):

Would you consider rehiring (name of the applicant)?

Would you recommend us hiring (name of the applicant)?

Did (name of the applicant) adhere to the company’s code of conduct?

Are there any other details that you think necessary for us to know about the job performance of (name of the applicant)? 

In case, (name of the applicant) is currently employed by your company, has he / she submitted the resignation letter already?

We are thankful to you in advance for sparing some time to send us all these details. Kindly call us or send us an email if you may have any questions.

(Include your complete name, your designation / title and contact details)

Writing an employment letter verification for someone

Now you are part of the human resource department and you are required to write an employment verification letter for someone while responding to the request you have received from another organization.

While writing this letter, it is important for you to pay attention to ensure that the letter must provide accurate information about the person. Also it is necessary to make sure that your letter must adhere to the appropriate format.

You won’t help the recipient by composing a letter that lacks the required details by the organization that has requested this letter. 

Follow the formal business letter format:
– Start your letter with your own contact information at the top of the letter. Include the recipient’s contact details if you are provided with.
– Don’t forget to include the date of the issuance of the letter.
– Be sure to include the salutation in the beginning of the letter and better don’t dispatch it unless you put your handwritten signature at the end of the letter.

Keep the employment verification letter concise:
– This letter is not to provide the information about employee’s performance at the workplace to the recipient.
– So keep it to the point and concise.
– You must not provide any other detail beyond what you are requested by the employee.

All requested information must be included in the letter:
– Look at the employment verification request form that you have received from the employee. Make a list of the details they have requested you to provide in the employment letter.
Include the name of the person, job title and the positions they have been appointed by the company along with the duration of time they have been serving.
Most of the employment verification letters include the salary package. You may also have to mention how often they are paid the salary such as weekly, bi-weekly or monthly.
In some cases, you have to mention the number of hours the employee serves every week.
But if these detail are not requested in the request form then better don’t include them in the letter.
As a courtesy, consult with the employee to double check if you have included all the details the other organization requires or if they may want to include something else.

Your contact details should come at the end of the letter:
– Offer the recipient to contact you in case they need any additional detail.
At the end of the letter, you should provide your contact details while encouraging the recipient to get in touch with you for further information.

Always proofread the content of the letter before you dispatch it:
This letter not only confirms the employment details of the employee of your company but it also depicts the image of your organization that how efficient you guys are to manage your business.
Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that the content of this letter must be flawless. Hence proofread this letter well and edit it if there are any inconsistencies in its content.
On the other hand, job application, approval of loan, mortgage, housing or insurance of your current / former employee depend on this letter. Hence be considerate and make it flawless and as professional as possible.

Be well aware of the company policies:
– Whether you are the supervisor, team lead, or human resource manager who needs to give a response to the verification request, you are required to be well aware of the company policies.
– You should know that if you are allowed to use the verification form that has been received from prospective employers of an employee working in your organization or you only can respond to them by filling out some specific form which is specified by your organization.
– Be aware of the specific details that you are not permitted to disclose to the other organization.

Avoid giving your own opinion rather just stick to the facts:
– If the policies and procedures of your organization allow you to handle the verification request then only provide the details that can be verified.
– Avoid giving your own opinion about the performance of the employee.
– While filling the verification request form, you have to ensure that you should not write anything which may cause legal issues for yourself or for your employer.

Don’t provide any personal documents of the employee to the other organization:
– Never send the resignation letter, termination letter or anything that can be regarded as personal for the employee.
– Providing the documents that contain personal details of the employee can definitely result in a lawsuit.

Sample of Employment Verification Letter

(Details of the person who is responsible to respond the employment verification request)


Company Name

Postal Address


(Details of the business requesting verification)

Name of the business

Postal Address

Dear Mr. / Ms. (name of the recipient),

Purpose of this letter is to certify the income and employment of (name of the individual). He / she has been serving the (name of the company where the individual has been / is employed) and holds the (title of the job). He / she has been an employee with (name of the company) since (Month Date, 2000). He / she is getting paid currently $00,000 (annual salary) annually and receives $0,000 as bonus. 

To provide you with the proof of their income, please find enclosed supporting documents that include Pay Stubs, Wage and Tax Statement. I confirm that provided details are accurate to the best of my knowledge. 

Kindly contact me if you have any query regarding the provided information. You can call me at 000 000 0000 or send me an email at hr@yourcompany.com.


Name (of the person writing this letter)


Is there any chance that a former employer can deny employment verification?

Legally, no organization is bound to respond to an employment verification letter unless federal or state government agencies have requested to do that. Hence it becomes a bit complicated to get your employment letter verified but of course, it is not impossible at all.

Though most employers don’t refuse to provide the employment verification letter but you may bump into an organization that denies doing so. Therefore, it is always in your best interest to maintain a healthy work relationship with any of your employers to avoid such types of refusals in the future. 

How can you avoid the refusal from your former employer?

Being polite will always help you a lot. Once your prospective employer or company, that needs verification of your employment, has sent the request to your current or former employer, you may call the human resource department.

If the person you are talking to is currently your colleague then it might not be a big deal to ask them to lend you this favor otherwise you may have to be very courteous to them.

You may also contact your supervisor or manager personally and talk to them about your verification. If you are not working with that organization anymore then you may request them to discuss it with the human resource department on your behalf.  

If they aren’t currently employed there then better take an appointment by sending them an email especially if you want to see them in person. Also you may call their contact number and request them to process your employment letter but don’t forget to show your gratitude. 

Getting the insider information from the former employer of an applicant 

On the other hand, if you are the human resource / recruitment manager and want to get some insider information which is usually not provided through an employment verification letter then chances are that your request will be denied.

For instance, it is important for you to know about the job performance of the applicant and you have to know whether they resigned properly or were fired. As said earlier, this piece of information can be almost impossible for you to obtain in written but still you can get some verbal clues from the company’s resource person if you are polite enough and can play the tactics.

How to verify the employment of the applicant?

While you are in process of verifying the employability of the job applicant, you may ask them “Would your company like to rehire this individual?”. Rarely, you will get the straightforward response in ‘yes’ or ‘no’. 

The most obvious answer you are expected to receive is, “yes, if qualified”. And that can bring you a whole host of meanings to consider. You may infer a lot of things from this answer such as:

  • They may not be qualified candidate 
  • They might have been fired by the former employer 
  • They were a poor performer and were terminated
  • Perhaps they have provided the wrong information on their CV
  • They ended up in a resignation letter that was awfully negative 
  • And much more

So better carefully consider each word of the response that you receive from the resource person of the former employer of the job applicant. It will help you a lot to decide whether you should hire that applicant or not. 


If you are an employer, you always want to help your employees to live a life in a top-notch state. You want them to get their loans and mortgage applications approved. You want them to live a better life in their dream homes.

You not only want them to have better relationships with you but also with their banks. To put it simply, you want to see them happy and very productive when they are serving your business and for that you always must be willing to make the employment verification process stress-free.  

On the other hand, every employee should not only serve their employers honestly but they should maintain a productive relationship with their peers.

End your working relationship with your employer on a very positive note and it will help you a lot in future. Not only make your first impression to last longer but remember that last impressions are forever.