Did you know that a significant percentage of people have not mastered the advanced concepts of Excel?

Microsoft Excel is probably the most common term you have come across in your student or professional career. If you are an aspirant looking for a career in analytics or data science, a student or a professional, you must be aware that familiarity with the concepts of Microsoft Excel is among the core competencies to thrive in the profession.

With the technical advancement, students are expected to be equipped with the knowledge of Microsoft Excel. There are several useful features in Excel, however, Pivot Tables are amongst the most powerful features provided in Excel.The knowledge of Pivot tables will change your approach towards using Excel.

Pivot Tables are tools that enable you to summarize large datasets and acquire relevant information from them quickly. It is easy to use and you can analyze multiple rows in a short time that could otherwise take many hours with the use of complex formulas.

To find a course on Excel that covers all the essential topics is not easy to find, as multiple platforms have shifted focus on providing courses that are trending in the job market.If you are looking to level-up your skills with important concepts of Excel, then Udemy offers a course on Excel Pivot Table Basics which has been popular among learners.

This course is beneficial for learners to get familiar with the basic concepts of Pivot Tables before moving on to an advanced course for the same. There are certain basic requirements for this course such as how to navigate the Excel ribbon, the knowledge of creating basic formulas using Excel, and how to copy and paste the information in Excel. 


What is a Pivot Table?

Pivot tables are one of the most powerful features in Excel. A Pivot table allows extracting information from a large data set with very little effort. It can rightly be considered as an interactive approach to viewing a report. There is no requirement for complex formulas to view data from different perspectives.

The data can be grouped into categories or broken down into monthly and yearly reports as well. There is a provision of filters that allows to include or exclude categories in the dataset that are relevant to a particular report. You can build charts to visualize the data reports for analysis.


What to Expect from the Course?

Section 1: Preparing Your Data

Introduction to Preparing Your Data

The first section of the course navigates you with important concepts. The process of structuring the information is presented in this section. Restructuring of data has been covered which is among the most important components in Excel. If data is incorrectly structured, then it diminishes the possibility of leveraging pivot tables.

The tutor highlights an important fact that the data is not often handed over in the appropriate format to be used directly for pivot tables, hence structuring plays a crucial role. The section further demonstrates how to set up the workbook for structuring the information. It is followed by the use of certain formulas to answer questions which are then summarized to gain insights into the data. The same information is reorganized to be able to leverage pivot tables to get you started.

Formulas vs Pivot Tables

The second module of the first section describes how Pivot tables are more powerful in comparison to using formulas for data analysis. The instructor defines how formulas for analyzing data is slow and inefficient. Pivot tables are simpler to use but a lot of people are not aware of how to use them. There is a follow-along demonstration of an example in which the data is analyzed by using formulas as well as Pivot tables to highlight the differences.

The example is about sales data that needs to be summarized to extract meaningful information out of the dataset. The use of filters is demonstrated as well for better understanding. The time taken to complete the task using Pivot tables took 15 seconds which was much more efficient than using formulas for the same task. There are also additional resources that are shared in this section.

How to Fix Your Data?

The section deals with trickier aspects of the data. The previous example had the right format for the data, however, the tutor looks into the factor when the information is not available in the right format for analysis. The cleaning of data is explained which is explained with the help of an example. It is also highlighted that sometimes there is a need to manually analyze the data before cleaning.

The data that is in the right format is copied and pasted into the workbook. The whole process of manual processing takes about three minutes in total. There are additional tips that it is better served to use manual processing for structuring the data rather than the formulas for compiling the data.

Related: Udemy Review


Section 2: Creating Pivot Tables

Introduction to Creating Pivot Tables

The tutor provides a walkthrough of the section and explains what will be the outcome at the end of this section. You will be able to create pivot tables on your data along with the basic skills that are needed for creating pivot tables. You will be able to have a clear understanding of working with your data and how to explore them.

Creating a Pivot Table with our Sample Data

In this section, the tutor covers the topic of creating a pivot table. The section begins with data that is needed to be downloaded for the example. The sample data is provided in the appropriate format so there is no need for changes in terms of cleaning and structuring the data.

The example consists of a sales database of a car company with region wise data that is available. There is a follow-along demonstration to create the pivot table out of the sample data. There is an explanation on how you can select your range manually which is followed by the concept of placing the pivot table report. The filters are used for the columns, rows, and values. It is explained that there is no benefit of a pivot table without placing something in the value space. The value area is where the information is placed for aggregation.

The creation of a new column for each unique value in the dataset has been shown in the example as well. Another place where the information can be placed in the filters area which is a bit outside of the pivot table. This area is used to filter information upon selecting the required part. The option to select multiple items is also described in detail. Finally, the proper way to create a pivot table with relevant features is shown at the end of the example. The section also has additional resources for your understanding.

Using Multiple Fields to Analyze Your Data

The instructor focuses upon the analysis of individual fields of the data. It is emphasized that the data needs to be broken down for an in-depth analysis. The outlook of the pivot table is determined by the number of fields in any area within a pivot table. The order of the fields within the area defines the overall structure of the pivot table. The example is demonstrated with the help of region-based sales data for a clearer understanding. The section further highlights the process of grouping the region within a pivot table.

Formatting Values

The section discusses some key points concerning values in the data. The tutor explains how certain data has pricing numbers but it is difficult to understand the actual value. For example, a certain price that could be 24 million or 2 million or 2.4 million is hard to tell without proper formatting. Hence, to make the numbers more readable, it is of utmost importance to format the values.

It is described that the Excel formatting options are very familiar, but to format the cells in the pivot table differs from the actual approach. If a pivot table is not told explicitly about what the changes are then the results will differ in the subtotal values as it might not reflect the necessary changes. It is common when working with decimal-based values. The instructor provides an example that demonstrates the options that are needed to be kept in mind while formatting values in a pivot table.

Losing your Field List

This section deep dives into an important concept of losing the field list. The tutor explains that it can be confusing if it happens when you have just started using Pivot tables. It is explained how the pivot tools and ribbon area works.

When you close out the pivot table, the tools and the ribbons sections along with the fields disappear, however, there are situations when you click back on the pivot table, the tools, ribbons area comes back while the fields area doesn’t come back. It is explained about the additional option of tackling such a problem and what is the procedure that needs to be followed to have the fields back as well.

Summarizing Your Data

The field settings present a screen with the option of summarizing values with the type of calculation that you require. However, it doesn’t always work in the case of the sum of the purchase price. The example is demonstrated clearly on how to efficiently aggregate the information. Additionally, there are options of standard deviation and variance calculations as well which is beneficial for statisticians.


Section 3: Lock in Your Knowledge

Section Introduction

This part of the course is an introduction to the course contents in section three of the module. The tutor provides a few challenges in the form of exercises and quizzes to be completed before moving on to the next module. Certain questions are related to the sample data. Also, there is a provision of a sample workbook with challenges built in them. The tutor encourages you to go through the challenges to get more familiar with tricky questions related to the pivot table and data.

Pivot Table Basics Challenge

The first pivot table challenge deals with identifying the total value of Toyota Land Cruiser sales from the data provided. The second set of the challenge involves the identification of the number of Subaru foresters that were sold whereas the final challenge involves the identification of the average Subaru sales price for Dusty and Dusty.

Challenge Answers

This section particularly discusses the answers to the challenge in detail. The tutor also completes the challenges and compares the solutions with the learners. The solutions provided by the tutor for this section are as follows.

For vehicle sales data, you just need to create a Pivot Table off of the information provided.

So go to insert a pivot table.

Select OK.

A new pivot table in a new worksheet code is available.

For the first question and the challenge was to identify the total value of Toyota Land Cruiser sales though when we talk about sales we know our vehicle sales data were referring to purchase price so drag purchase price into my values area and just while we’re here we’ll update my value field settings and update the number format and up to 2 accounting with zero decimal places just because the focus is on the total vehicle sales in dollars.

To identify the value of Toyota Land Cruiser sales, Toyota is the make and Land Cruiser is the model so you can see that in the Toyota section of the data.

Under Toyota, there is the total value of the Toyota Land Cruiser sales which is 12 million two hundred fifty-eight thousand five hundred and eighty-one dollars.

The next question is how many Subaru Forester were sold?

The tutor provides the solution by explaining that the information is already organized with the make and the model which is Subaru Forester. All you have to do is identify the count of Subaru Foresters.

So instead of updating the value, the instructor provides an additional tip to use for this challenge.

There was an explanation for being able to drag multiple field values into any area within the pivot table. That is what you are expected to use.

Although, it is not the most intuitive thing with Pivot Tables because the field is already in the value section but there is a possibility to drag it in more than once which is fine to do so.

Once the solution is implemented, you can see that it has defaulted to some of the purchase prices in the data. As there is already a purchase price in the pivot table, you are expected to change the name of those fields with the help of the field settings.

You can overwrite and change it to total sales. Now, there is a field with total sales and this field is required to represent the vehicles sold so you can do it in the field settings and change it to count and create a custom name and call it vehicle sold. This provides the answer to the second challenge which is 329 Subaru Forester were sold.

For the final challenge question about What is the average Subaru sales

price for Dusty? To answer this question, the tutor begins from the scratch and empties the pivot table. It is explained how to empty the pivot table using the clear button. To solve the final question, the purchase price is taken into consideration and the average option is selected from the field setting.

The average purchase price of all of the vehicle sales that exist in the database is displayed. You can update to account for zero decimal places. The make of the vehicle is important for this challenge. The make is added into the columns which show Dusty’s average Subaru sale. The tutor provides another method to solve this task with the use of filters. It is explained that pivot tables are flexible and you can answer different questions with a different approach and yet you can achieve the same answer.

Practice Workbook

In the practice workbook, the instructor provides a hands-on experience with more questions. New worksheets are provided with a new set of data and new problems to master your skills. The exercise contains important questions to enhance your practical knowledge and it is suggested to go through this section as well. There are additional resources shared for more information.


Section 4. Bonus Lecture: Thank You and Coupon

For those looking to move to advanced concepts, the tutor explains the provision for an advanced course offered by him. It is a comprehensive and in-depth course on Pivot tables. With an experience of over a decade, the tutor highlights very important concepts in the advanced course as well. There is a coupon provided by the tutor that allows you to take up the course with that amount. It is a 10 USD coupon but it may vary according to the country you are accessing from.


Benefits of this course

Learning Path

The advantage of this course on Excel Pivot table is the content that has been provided for a beginner course. The course doesn’t overwhelm the newcomers as certain introductory courses focus on many concepts at once which confuses them. It follows a very simple approach and begins from very scratch with the installation process.

Some additional resources and challenges and quizzes have been provided to enhance your hands-on experience. The core concepts are explained well. A major benefit is that all the concepts are also demonstrated with an example that learners can practice and improve on. The theoretical explanations are clear and simple to relate to. The examples are easy to follow for a beginner.


The course provides a certificate of completion and access to online content, certification, and direct access to the instructor for Q&A, and direct reply from the instructor for the paid option. It is important to note that access to online content is available for the free version and the remaining options from the paid version are not being offered.

Learning Community

The learning community on Udemy comprises students and professionals and instructors who are constantly sharing additional resources and important discussions on relevant topics. There are important tips that are shared as well that can benefit learners to implement along the course and helpful for their careers. The instructors are actively communicating with the students and answering their doubts that they post on the forum.

Hands-on Approach

The course provides a hands-on learning experience. The course provides sufficient exposure to theoretical concepts while making the learners practice them in the additional challenges that have been provided for having more practical knowledge for the same.

A hands-on approach lets you grasp the concept much faster. Additionally, there are tips and alternative methods that are discussed during the practical exercises. Additionally, every installation has been demonstrated.

The examples that are being covered are also shown practically, thus enhancing the overall learning process. The tutor has used a single example throughout the course. This helps to understand the practical part more clearly as too many examples can lead to confusion over its implementation. The course is a perfect balance of theory and practical knowledge and provides crucial information along with additional resources.


About the Instructor

Matt Jackson is a digital analytics and SEO professional. He has been using Excel for over 15 years. He has been involved with some of Australia’s largest companies for developing business intelligence solutions. For business analytics to derive meaningful business solutions, he has constantly used Excel as one of the primary tools.

From the experience of working in large organizations, he has been motivated by the reactions he has witnessed when he could show something new for the first time. Currently, Matt Jackson is the director at Stay Digital, a company dedicated to helping local businesses thrive online.

Overall Rating of the Course

  • Instructor Expertise: 5
  • Additional Resources: 5
  • Course Content Quality: 5
  • Career Value: 5
  • Delivery of the Content: 5
  • Visuals and Readability: 5
  • Examples: 5
  • Speed of Delivering the Content: 5
  • Basic Concepts: 5
  • Overall Rating: 5

People consider taking two jobs for several reasons. Whether to maximize their income to pay off debt or to build on a newly acquired skill. Having two jobs can be a daunting task, one has to strike a balance between having a healthy lifestyle, having time for family and friends while coping with the stress that comes along.

Part-time jobs can be a great idea, they provide many opportunities such as helping to build up your resume, improve the financial status, test newly acquired skills, and help enhance your social life. When people seek new jobs they are often oblivious of the dangers of not properly managing both jobs, most especially when they have pre-existing full-time jobs.

Without proper management and planning, what was thought originally to be a great idea, could turn out to be a nightmare. In a worst-case scenario, you could lose out on both sides.

Your employer may not be comfortable with the idea at all or may notice a lack of commitment towards your primary job. This could be potentially costly to you, as the aim of getting the job in the first place is defeated. Finding the right job for yourself is the most important step which means you should find a job that is well suited for you.

By weighing the pros and cons of your new job and making proper enquiries, you will be guided in making the right decision. If getting a second job is the right decision for you, here are some tips that will help you manage working two jobs at the same time without pushing yourself beyond your limits.


Job Selection

When choosing the right job, you must consider some important factors that will ensure you don’t face the challenges that come with handling working two jobs. By answering the following questions, you’ll be guided in your decision towards choosing the right job that suits you.

  • Does my schedule permit have a second job? If your primary job offers decent free time then getting a second job would be just the best for you. In such cases, you should consider getting a higher paying full-time job. Most especially if the main reason you got the job was for making some extra money.
  • Is it worth the extra effort? It is ok to work two jobs to make extra cash, but the question to ask yourself is, if the job is worth the extra time and effort. Handling two jobs can be difficult, for this reason, make sure the extra money earned is congruent with the extra effort spent.
  • Will you enjoy the job? It’s not about working two jobs for the benefits. What determines the longevity and success of having a second job is your attitude towards work. This is largely dependent on how you feel about the job.
  • Will the new job affect my primary job? Most times the primary job offers you a better paycheck at least when compared with the second job. While working two jobs it is important to keep at the back of your mind, what job helps pay the most of your bills?
  • Do I have the required skills? A lot of people find themselves hopping from one job to the other because they lack the necessary skills. Their motivation for working several jobs is primarily for making more money “which is okay” when you have the required skills.

By spending time improving your skills you make personal investments, that would help you achieve your career goals and secure your dream job. The labor market is a competitive one, most companies prefer employing experts and experienced individuals.

By polishing your craft, you earn a trump card that will help you secure the position you want. In your working environment, you will be surrounded by professionals who are just as ambitious as you are, therefore, you need to have up-to-date skills that will give you the upper hand.

Do Your Research

One important phase when seeking a second job is the research phase, you will need to find an opportunity that fits your qualification, expertise and skills. Check out websites and look for firms whose vacancies are best suited for you.

If you find employers who require your services, look for details of past success stories from people who have worked there before. You could also check-up LinkedIn profiles of people who work the same job you are looking for. Join the relevant social media groups available, this will help you learn more about the firm.


Now you have got the second job and—”the pay is great”. But you have to travel miles to get your second workplace. When finding a second job always put into consideration issues of transportation. You are advised to get a job close to your primary workplace, so you don’t have to go through the hassles of shuttling between workplaces. Depending on the job, proximity might not be a thing to worry about, many jobs require you to work on a computer, this can be done anywhere even in the comfort of your home.

Consider Legal Limitations

It all boils down to your employers contractual agreement conditions. They may be constraints as regards your contract with your employer. You may be required to agree to certain terms by your primary employer, some of which may form limitations much later when working two jobs.

Provided you manage working two jobs without conflict of interest or break in the terms of your primary job then you are all set. A lot of people work single full-time jobs with work hours equivalent to working two part-time jobs. The challenge, however, is maintaining a tight schedule that prevents conflict between both jobs.

Employers Flexibility

A flexible workflow system offers many opportunities, as well as provides you with many benefits. Your full-time job should be at the top of your priority list. You may need to ask your second employer for adaptable work arrangements.

Many large businesses offer flexible work arrangements since these large-scale businesses are often adequately staffed, hence they run multiple shifts for their staff. On the other hand small-scale businesses, sometimes are short-staffed and may be unable to accommodate your request. As a consequence, you’re required to find a job that fits the flexibility you need.


Time Management

Working two jobs requires hard work and discipline. Nonetheless, one of the most important skills you should have in life is proper time management. Without proper time management, it is almost impossible to reach your goals, be it your career goals or your life goals.

You will have some successes, but with poor time management, it is always going to be a struggle. So if you want to enjoy the benefits of having 2 jobs without stretching yourself beyond your limits, you will need to set goals and plan your time. The simple trick is finding a proper time management plan and working on it.


Planning Your Schedule

By creating a schedule, you plan your activities in such a way that you can achieve your priorities within your time limits. This helps you understand your daily activities and prevent you from taking more than you can handle. Establish when you want to do your scheduling, at the beginning of the month or beginning of the week, it all depends on what works best for you. One easy way is to get a pen and paper and draw out a weekly plan or download a weekly planner document from the internet.

Another option is to explore available applications that help you plan your week with inbuilt functions. To succeed in working two jobs identify your free time and establish how much time you intend to spend on each job. Prioritize your activities in your workplace, make a to-do list and start working on essential tasks first.

You should also arrange your tax in such a way that important tasks are done at the time of the day when you are most productive. Due to the nature of working two jobs, you should make time for contingencies. Sometimes things may come up at your primary workplace, by making time available in such a way that you will be able to make effective workarounds that will help you solve these issues. As you work your second job, frequent interruptions could take up so much valuable time.

Some of these interruptions can be difficult to predict. By making your schedule flexible and creating some available space in between, you should be able to circumvent these interruptions easily.

Set Your Goals

Setting goals at your workplace will help you in balancing working two jobs. Your personal goals should support that of your company’s. Some companies may tend to be better at helping employees achieve their work goals. Some employers may know the benefits of goal alignment and will help employees set their personal work goals.

This offers many opportunities and will also serve as a launch-pad for your career growth. By doing so you make clear to yourself what you want from your job, this will go a long way in guiding you towards getting the most of the benefits of having 2 jobs.

Plan for the Rest

We all are familiar with the phrase “all work and no play makes Jack a dull boy”. Working long hours without rest can be harmful to one’s health and well-being. While planning your schedule, do not forget to make available rest periods in between shifts. Working two jobs comes with some degrees of stress. Keep track of your stress level so you don’t end up “popping” pain relievers anytime you feel stressed.


Managing Funds

Considering the extra hours and effort spent on making extra cash, should offer you enough motivation to work prudently. Being in debt, while working two jobs can be a terrible situation (the one you don’t want to find yourself in).

This is why you have to make a budget so you don’t end up spending more than you earn. Poor money management sounds terrible. But the truth is a good number of people are poor at managing their income.

If you find yourself among this group of people then you are in luck. There are many available strategies that will help you manage your funds properly. Proper management of money takes time to master, it requires discipline and some level of sacrifice.

To balance the financial aspects of working two jobs, you will need to understand your financial situation. Understanding your financial situation will go a long way in helping you create your budget.

Draw Your Budget

The number one question that comes to our minds when we try to create a budget is “do I need this?”. The answer to that question is a straightforward “Yes!”. It takes one thing to draw a budget but takes another to stick to it. It may be difficult at first but there is always light at the end of the tunnel.

By making a budget plan, you begin to see clearly your financial situation. Having a budget also helps in managing debts, savings and expenses to be incurred much later. This ultimately helps you have some sort of control over your financial life.

Plan for the Bills

Many people are unaware of their monthly expenses, some are unable to keep track of how much they spend in a week. By understanding your income and expenses you will be able to plan adequately enough, so you don’t end up incurring unnecessary debt.

Many people take up a second job, so they can make extra income to help them with their bills. Take note of your daily expenses including groceries, gas, electricity and water bills.

Write them down and calculate your monthly expenses. Doing this will help you have an insight as to how much you spend monthly. This will also serve as a reminder for your future expenses. Working two jobs can be much easier with good money management skills, your spending habit determines to a great extent your motivation to keep going in the job.

Save Money

Saving money each month from the extra income can help you build a good financial habit. These savings can be automated easily in such a way that money is transferred directly to your savings account and you do not need to manually transfer money.

Managing money can be quite difficult at the beginning, it takes a huge level of discipline to properly manage your income. However, the moment you inculcate these habits into your life, the easier it gets.


Keep Your Primary Job

Remember the reason you got the second job was to make extra money. Working a second job shouldn’t be at the expense of your primary job. Your full-time job should always take priority. A lot of people who work two jobs, tend to lose focus and take their full-time jobs for granted. You shouldn’t be among this category of people.

Do Your Job

When working two jobs, always try as much as possible to excel in your jobs. Remember there are equally skilled individuals, who are available to employers and will gladly swing into your position

Help Your Employer

Strive to maintain a good relationship with your boss. As far as job security is concerned, this is more or less the number one rule. Especially for someone who wants to balance working two jobs, your relationship with your employer will determine a lot. You should be seen trying to make work a lot easier for your team. Your boss may appreciate your effort and may reward you with some extra free time or even a promotion.

Beef-up Your Resume

It is always helpful to keep your resume current, by doing so you take another step towards maintaining your primary job. Try to have the upper hand by adding your recent career achievements to your resume.

Consider Informing Your Employer

Handling two jobs will be a lot easier if your boss is informed. However, the decision whether to inform your employer can be a tricky one—as you would have to put a lot into consideration. This may not be much of a problem when working part time jobs. Some companies do not permit employees working for competitors, this clause is always stated clearly in your contract with your primary employer.

In such instances, you are advised not to get a second job in a similar company or act in any way that violates your agreed work terms. However, in instances where the contract in your full time job does not take into account working for competitors, you shouldn’t bring it up if you don’t feel the need to.


Ask for Help from Family and Friends

Having two jobs can be a huge burden. Your family and friends are always there to help you, whether it’s searching for part time jobs or running errands. When asking family and friends for job opportunities, be more specific about the type of job you need. You should also inform them about your plans to work two jobs.

That way they can understand your situation and inform you about available jobs that meet your specification. Whether family or friend, remember that asking for help involves their time and effort. For this reason before making your request, understand that they also have things to do as well and they have to go out of their way to help you.

Your friends or family can also help you with errands. As you work two jobs some of your free times are no longer available to you due to your busy schedule. You may need help with things like buying your groceries, feeding your pets (if you have one) and other personal tasks. Do not hesitate to ask people close to you for help. Always make sure you appreciate those who help you out. Be nice and express your gratitude. Because you definitely will need their help again.


Do Not Overwhelm Yourself

If having one job is enough stress for you. Then working a second job can be nerve-racking. Know your limits and stay within them. Be careful not to take up more work that you can manage easily. It can be proved to be counterproductive when you make more money at the detriment of your health. A study on long work hours revealed that people who worked more than 11 hours per day are 2.5 times more likely to develop depression.

The more reason, you have to be careful when choosing your second job. You should try as much as possible to avoid having two physically demanding jobs at the same time. Your full-time job may have the better paycheck, but is twice the stress. Try to balance the stress with the income and see if it weighs out. If not, only go for a second job, when you are sure it will not be a multiplying factor to your stress level.


Know When to Take a Break

You should consider taking a break at your second job, if it begins to place a significant risk on your primary job, or when you begin to have trouble with coping with the stress. People with full-time jobs mostly work during the day, this provides them with plenty of rest-time. On the other hand, people who work night shifts or work in the evenings have little time to relax and rest for the day. This particularly places stress on them in the long run.


Maintain a Healthy and Social Life Style

As well as there are benefits to having two jobs, there are also downsides some of which affect your health directly. While planning your schedule remember to reserve some time for yourself. Make sure you eat healthily, always try to have breakfast before going about your day. Stay hydrated and plan for lunch, if you do not have time to eat at a restaurant close by, ensure you take some healthy snacks along with you.

Having a meal before heading out will help you stay focused and remain productive throughout the day. Working two jobs may mean you are busy all the time, but that doesn’t mean you should throw your social life into the garbage-can, make time for family and friends. Remember the key to having a balanced lifestyle is largely dependent on your state of mind and relationship with other people.

Many people struggle with the process of cancelling a job interview, whether they have decided that they no longer want the job or if they simply want to reschedule their upcoming interview.
The most important thing to note is that cancelling a job interview is OK, yes, it can be a little awkward but there is nothing wrong with changing your mind about the role or asking for an alternate date.

Job seekers have a number of motives and reasons when it comes to withdrawing from the interview process, but they should always be sure that they definitely do not want to the role; there is a chance that those who cancel in the middle of the job application process will find it hard to get another interview at that company.

Some companies will add a note on their follow up email regarding their interview policy, asking you to contact the recruiter if you find that you do need to cancel or reschedule.


Before You Cancel

Think About Your Reasons

There is quite a lot to consider before you rush into sending a cancellation email, at the same time your approach will need to be timely as it is always best to ensure that you give advance notice when cancelling your appointment. It gives the hiring manager and recruitment team the opportunity to contact another applicant and get them to fill in for your slot.

You shouldn’t cancel your interview if you do in fact want the job, but you just can’t make it or it is inconvenient timing. A lot of people get cold feet when they secure an interview and have second thoughts about leaving their current role and potentially upsetting their employer, even if they really want the job.

You should also never cancel because of nerves and anxiety over an interview. Everyone feels overwhelmed when they are interviewing, sometimes even the interviewers feel a little anxious, there are a number of techniques, tips and tricks to help you prepare and stay calm in an interview. Don’t cancel an opportunity you really want because you are nervous.

If you are not 100% sure whether or not you want the role, best practice is to go for the interview as a form of research to help you make your decision. It is better to have the option of accepting a post than not attending an interview and then regretting it, dwindling your chances of securing a post at the same company in the future.

Need to Reschedule Interview

Rescheduling is different from cancelling your interview. A lot of job seekers believe that if they cannot make the interview time that they have to cancel the interview, most of the time employers will be happy to work around you and your schedule.

If you wake up feeling under the weather and know you can’t perform at your best give the recruitment team or manager a call and let them know that you are feeling ill. They would also prefer you to call them and reschedule rather than turn up whilst sick.

Most employers will completely understand, after all, feeling sick is completely unavoidable. If you can’t get the time off from your current role you can ask to reschedule, same goes, of you couldn’t get someone to mind your children or if you have an unforeseen emergency.

If you are giving plenty of notice you should email the hiring manager, or whoever contacted you regarding the interview, and ask for a reschedule. In the event that you don’t receive a prompt reply consider giving them a call as a follow up to check they got the email. If you have left it a little later, it is best to ring the recruitment team directly and let them know that you wish to reschedule.

Rescheduling an interview is never ideal but as long as your reasons are valid and you aren’t simply rescheduling so you have more time to prepare, most panels fully understand that some job seekers will need to rearrange their interview times and dates.

Be sure to give a decent amount of notice when you are rescheduling so you don’t burn your bridges before you even make it to the hot seat, this should also be the case if you are running late for valid reasons.

You should always have a date and time in mind when you are rescheduling that you know you are 100% available and will be able to make it. Some employers will not be willing to reschedule, likely due to time constraints but others may question your interest in the position that is just part and parcel of employment and can’t be helped.


Reschedule Email Template

Topic: Interview Reschedule Request- (Your Name)

To (Hiring Manager),

I am contacting you with regard to my scheduled interview on the (Date) at (Time) for the position of (Position Title) at (Company Name). Firstly, I would like to thank you for the progression of my application and an invite to meet with you to discuss it further.

I regret to inform you that, due to a family emergency, I will be unable to attend my interview on (Agreed Date). I would like to express how much of a fantastic opportunity this would be for me and my continued interest in this opening.

Would it be possible to reschedule the interview to another date due to my extenuating circumstances? The following dates would work best for me (List of dates).

I apologise for the short notice and hope you can understand my situation.

I will await your reply.

Many Thanks,

(Your Signature)

(Printed name)

Follow Up

If the prospective employer comes back to you to reschedule and offer you an alternate date send them a follow-up email to express your thanks and let them know that you appreciate their understanding.

If you do not receive a prompt email in return you can call but it will be up to the hiring manager’s discretion as to whether you get another opportunity.


Reschedule Call Template

Calling to reschedule may work in your favour if you want to ensure that the panel is aware of how keen you are to work for them and that you are being candid with your excuse for not being able to make the agreed date.

Hi (Hiring Manager Name)

My name is (name). We spoke recently regarding my application for the vacant role at your company.

I hope I haven’t caught an inconvenient time. I’m reaching out to you as I am unable to make it to my upcoming interview for the (position title) scheduled for (Day/Date).  (Give them the reason you can’t make it, but not in too much detail)

I sincerely apologise for the inconvenience I am incredibly keen to meet with you and would love to reschedule where possible. (Tell them the days and times you are available, let them know you are open to other offers if they suit better)

No matter the outcome

No matter the outcome, you should thank the hiring manager for their time and consideration. They might get back to you after they have spoken with recruitment or other members of the panel.

Discuss following up with an email of the times when you said you would be available, so they don’t feel pressured into taking it down while on the phone to you.

Potential Consequences

Another consideration before cancelling a job interview is to think about the consequences that could arise. This could factor in a number of things from damage to your reputation if the information that you cancelled gets leaked to other organisations or if your current employer knows you were planning to interview somewhere else.

You might end up with egg on your face if you cancelled an interview for a role you had wanted but for illegitimate reasons like you are nursing a hangover or you want to go and play golf instead.

Your change of heart could be viewed as unreliability in the professional community especially if the industry you work in is quite a small, close-knit community. As aforementioned you should also consider if cancelling will impact the chances of you landing an interview for the same company in the future.

You might also come up against the same hiring manager or HR team again in different roles and different organisations and they might remember that you cancelled the interview.

If in doubt you should interview anyway, instead of wasting anyone’s time but your own. If you end up getting the role you can always turn it down gracefully.


Cancelling the Interview

You are Making the Right Decision

People cancel interviews in the job search process for a number of reasons and it’s OK to cancel for a whole host of reasons but make sure you inform the panel. Don’t be a no-show as word might get around the industry that you just didn’t turn up or you’ll get blacklisted.

If you need further validation, you should cancel your interview if:

You know you wouldn’t be happy in the new role because information has been passed back to you regarding company morals and values that do not align with your beliefs.

This can often be the case when people begin researching a company for interview preparation and realise that they have missed a few key points about company background or partner organisations.

You’ve received a better job offer from another interview and you are sure that it is the right career choice for you.

You have maybe applied for this role as a secondary choice or back up and now that you have secured your first choice you need to let the recruitment team know that you no longer need the interview.

Maybe the career move has eventuated at an inconvenient time for your family or your finances and you can’t justify upsetting the balance of your life at the moment.

Making that decision is difficult and sometimes job seekers apply for their dream jobs but know they might need to take a pay cut and then a financial crisis pops up at home. Making the decision to change career really depends on good timing when you have responsibilities.

How to Cancel the Interview

If you have reached the decision that cancelling is the right move for you then you should try to cancel in the most appropriate way and follow professional email etiquette. Your timing will have to be appropriate if you would rather call. Ringing someone to give them news when they are eating their dinner will just peg you as a time waster.

Who to Address?

This is important, you should contact the person who got in touch with you about your interview in the first instance. They may even have sent follow up details after your phone call that noted who to call in the event that you needed to reschedule or cancel.

Make sure you address the correct person, cancelling an interview is a sensitive practice and your email could end up in employment records. You should have taken the time at least to get an employer’s name or have looked at the last email you received out of common courtesy.

By giving a vague salutation like, to whom it may concern, may prove lack of interest and discount your excuse for cancelling or rearranging your appointment. Take care when writing the hiring manager’s name, it would be awkward to sit across from them and answer questions if you have misspelt their given name.

Give Plenty of Notice

The first and most obvious step is to let the interviewer / hiring manager know as soon as professionally possible. Either by cancellation email or over the phone. If you have largely been in contact with the HR team over email then you may not want to bother them by phoning them, as long as you aren’t giving them extremely late notice.

Make sure your email is properly thought out and formatted professionally. Alternatively, you could ring the hiring manager and let them know of your decision to cancel directly, they probably have a number of candidates to interview so make sure you have your interview details at hand so they can take note.

Be Brief

You should keep your conversation brief and friendly but informative, you don’t necessarily have to give a reason, but you can if you like. Sometimes giving a reason might not be the best idea as it will be evaluated as to whether it is a valid enough excuse for cancellation.

Do not launch into a long-winded explanation about why you can’t make it, or the other job offer you have received which is much better than what this position offered and that is why you aren’t coming.

Be Grateful

Interviews are hard to come by in the current climate so make sure you thank the employer and their team for giving you the opportunity to meet with them.

Be Apologetic

Although cancelling or rescheduling may be beyond your control or be what is best for your career path you should still be apologetic. The company has taken the time to read through your application and match your skills with what they are looking for.

The recruitment process takes a lot of time, so even if cancelling was beyond your control the employer still deserves an apology for your application having taken some of their time and consideration.

End on a Good Terms

Make sure you end the interaction on a good note. Interviews are fundamentally occupational deals and most employers share information between each other, particularly if they cannot hire someone who left an impression on them.

They might get in contact with another hiring company to suggest a job seeker so it stands to reason that they would extend the same courtesy if someone stands out for the wrong reasons too.


Cancellation Email Template

Topic: Interview Withdrawal (your name and date)

To (Hiring Manager),

I am contacting you to thank you for your interest in my candidacy for the position of (position title) at (business name). I regret to inform you that due to personal reasons I will not be interviewing with your panel as scheduled on (Interview date).

I would like to thank you for considering me for the role and taking the opportunity to progress my application. I am no longer available for this position. (Give reason if preferred).

I would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused, I hope you fill the position with the perfect candidate as soon as possible.

Many Kind Regards,

(Your Signature)

(Printed name)


Call Transcript

If you are opting to call, maybe due to time constraints or you prefer the personal touch you should think through what you would like to say so the details are concise and coherent. Calling is a sign of respect and trust, it often shows that you are genuine and that your reasons for cancelling are sound, even if you aren’t willing to share them.

Hi (Prospective Employer Name) 

My name is (Your Name), We spoke recently following my application.

I just wanted to give you a quick call with regard to our upcoming scheduled interview for the (date) for the position of (Position Title). Unfortunately, due to unforeseen circumstances I will be withdrawing my candidacy from this role and will no longer be interviewing with the panel.

(Give a brief description of why you are withdrawing)

I would like to take this opportunity to thank you for your consideration of my application and apologise for the short notice. I hope you can fill the position as soon as possible.

Thank you for your time!



Cancel an Internal Interview

Cancelling an internal interview is not recommended as it can cause a lot of in house upset. Not only does cancelling upset the hiring manager but word travels fast and it may alert your current team to the fact that you are considering leaving them.

If you have submitted a job application form for an internal role and are having second thoughts, you should withdraw your application as soon as possible or go through with the interview and then weigh up your options.

This is definitely the rare occasion where declining interview opportunities is better than cancelling them after one has been scheduled.

You need to think of your reputation within your company and if you will be marked as unreliable by a fundamental team of people you will see and must work with on a daily basis. You will have to deal with misconceptions about why you cancelled as well.

If you have taken the leap and agreed to an internal interview to then have to cancel you should do so by calling or scheduling a meeting with the hiring manager and explain why you can no longer be a candidate. They will appreciate the face to face and could discreetly retract your application for you.

You should take great consideration when applying for a new internal role as the interview process can differ wildly and your company will have all of your employment background and references on hand so make the application count.

You do not want to look like you are chasing money and applying for every opportunity that will boost your pay packet. The same way you don’t want to have to withdraw your application that could be taken as disloyalty to your current manager and announce that you can’t be counted on to the whole company.


Follow the Process

By following the above steps, you can cancel your interview without burning any bridges or wasting time further. You can withdraw professionally without destroying your own reputation within the industry but remember to only cancel for valid reasons.

A future job opportunity at the same company may arise in the future that you might want to apply for, it will still be on their record that you cancelled a previous interview but it might not be held against your application if you withdrew gracefully and professionally.


The education industry is evolving before our eyes. With the advent of newer technologies, the process of knowledge sharing has spread across the physical and virtual worlds. The need for digitization in the educational sector has been of primary importance.

The rapidly growing education industry has witnessed huge investments in innovative technologies for the development of universities, online courses, colleges, and several research organizations.

The role of emerging technologies such as blockchain has been successful in addressing various issues that the educational institutions are facing for several decades.

Blockchain technology offers solutions to address these problems by reducing cost, improving the overall efficiency, speeding up manual procedures, and providing transparency by offering secured information exchange without the need for third-party involvement.

The use of blockchain has a wide range of benefits for universities such as verifying student credentials, appropriate certification of ownership of intellectual property, financial assistance and grants verification and allocation, admissions, digitizing the paper certificates which helps in sharing educational qualifications with employers digitally.

The growth of blockchain technology has been able to deliver a digital offering that enables students, educational networks, and employers to have a seamless experience in information sharing securely.


Blockchain Technology in Education

Initially, the world was introduced to blockchain technology with the creation of bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. The primary reason for using blockchain is its ability to allow decentralization.

In recent years, blockchain technology has grown significantly and is useful for several industries. The possibility of making transactions without knowing the other party through various intermediaries has been due to blockchain technology.

Based on various studies conducted by European universities and a report by the Joint Research Center of the European Commission, blockchain technology is found to be an incorruptible system that can offer tremendous value to any educational institution.

The development of the blockchain has been encouraged due to its potential of offering value to an education system with its offerings. 

Blockchain can be termed as a distributed ledger, where records of accounts, student grades, certification, and identity-based information can be maintained securely. Ideally, these processes are performed through software today which are centralized.

The problem with a centralized ledger is that all the information would be compromised if it is stolen or damaged and having the backup of such data is technically impossible.

Therefore, blockchain technology is considered more effective due to its decentralized nature, which makes the data immutable in such systems which is a boon for sensitive information.

Blockchain technology provides a distributed ledger in which individual nodes keep a copy of the original ledger while verifying the integrity of new records as well as the copy of it. In the case of failure of nodes, it ensures that the ledger remains stable.

The following section highlights some of the key contributions that are achievable with the help of blockchain in education.


Possible Contributions of Blockchain in Education



The paper-based certificate generation is a lengthy procedure. The need for writing to the administration for releasing certain certificates causes delay and students often face the difficulties of rushing the remaining process in terms of applying for jobs or getting enrolled for other courses. 

Blockchain makes it possible for storing all the certificates and credentials in a single platform. The employers or institutions can verify by providing the link of a digital certificate that an individual has earned.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology is among the first institutions that have opted for providing a blockchain-based digitally stored platform for certificates and diplomas of their graduates. 

The benefit of such approach is to prevent submission of any fake degree certificates to a potential employer or an institution for enrollment to a degree or certificate course.


Maintaining Student Records

Academic transcripts are one of the most important and valuable records in a student’s career. Schools, colleges, and universities need to maintain all the data accurately for several years in their system. However, the maintenance of the student records is a labor-intensive task and requires to be stored appropriately with manual verification for accuracy.

Such tedious tasks can be handled efficiently with the help of blockchain, ensuring verified records of all the academic achievements being available with the utmost ease. It helps save time for students, teachers, and the office administration department.


Credit Transfer

The data stored in a blockchain is considered tamper-proof. There are provisions for verification and storing of information with timestamps existing on each tamper-proof block. All the available blocks are authenticated due to time stamps, thus helps in easier verification.

Typically, the credit transfer in the situation of student migration to another institution is time-consuming and often takes time to process. The problem faced by students with a waiting period is that they may miss out on important deadlines for application and verification by the new institute.

Often, there are scenarios where the procedure of credit transfer is not accepted by another institute if it has not been performed with the required procedure. Therefore, blockchain ensures that if the necessary conditions are met by a student, then the credits are automatically transferred as per the agreement.

The process is beneficial to make it automated for issuing degrees on fulfillment of credit criteria by a student which ensures a hassle-free process while the records remain safe and unalterable by any outside source.


Intellectual Property Protection

As several kinds of research are going on in a university, it is crucial to keep it protected if a violation of a certain agreement occurs.

There is a possibility of hackers trying to extract important information from certain research or make some part of research or a stolen technology out in the market. As the data is secure in a blockchain, there is control over the registration, faster and safer that can be accessed by the required sources only. 

The blockchain will consist of particular information on who owns the rights and evidence of the creation of the design or technology with time-stamped information and solid evidence to prove it.  


Plagiarism Control

The publishing-related works that are the most vulnerable to plagiarism can also be avoided as copyright material will be existing in the blockchain with no scope of alteration due to advanced encryption and complete ownership access.

The academic world will benefit highly from the implementation of blockchain as more institutions look for exposing students to the world of research and publishing their research work in academic journals.

However, most cases of plagiarism have been reported in the field of academic writing, therefore it is necessary to maintain original work with the right authorship that can be referenced but not copied. The possibility of keeping the documents and research safe and secured from forgery is with the use of blockchain.


Learning Platform

Blockchain can contribute towards an innovative platform for learning and knowledge sharing. An internal blockchain ecosystem can be developed wherein students can share ideas, study resources, project ideas, downloading resources, and feedback sharing.


Increasing Efficiency

With the potential of blockchain platforms ensuring secured record-keeping, digital certificates, and automatic credit transfer, the need for monotonous tasks is reduced significantly.

This allows for automation of these activities leading to reduced cost for educational institutions. The cost of file storage is reduced and the available savings could be better utilized for the development of the institution or helping students with grants and financial aids.


Financial Aids and Grants

The increase in the number of cases related to fake student ID cards and accessing their information for wrongfully manipulating the possible financial aids to potential students have been reported.

With the availability of blockchain, the hacking and manipulation of data are not possible, thus keeping the system protected. Although universities are extremely cautious, however, the number of hacking situations has grown in recent years. Therefore, a blockchain ensures that the rightful and deserving candidates receive grants and financial aids.


Secured Payments

The increased number of cases involving fraudulent links for payments have made it a necessity to have a protected network for payment. Blockchain technology is well-suited for such tasks as this technology has found acceptance in major transaction-based companies such as PayPal.

The use of blockchain in the payment gateway of educational institutions ensures reliable transactions with a provision of verifying the credibility of the institution that an individual is making payment for. Blockchain can help to eliminate fraudulent networks that exist in the mode of payments.


Barriers of Blockchain Adoption in Education

As an emerging technology, blockchain adoption presents several challenges. To implement blockchain, will require a wholesome change at the grass-root level along with the technical components that form the backbone of an educational system. Another critical factor to consider is the blockchain regulations that are enacted by the government and the need for a particular infrastructure to propagate the usage of blockchain in the educational platform.

There have been efforts from the European Commission to invest in blockchain technology in education. It will need more investments to spur the adoption of blockchain technology in the future.

Countries like Singapore and Australia are focusing on removing the regulatory hurdles that exist in the adoption of blockchain technology.

To achieve successful adoption of blockchain infrastructure in the educational sector, the institutes must have data standards, increased cost of storage and processing power, data storage locations, and careful analysis of the data that should be allowed to be shared to maintain the security of an individual.

Each institution has its system for record-keeping and student data management, therefore blockchain implementation may cause some chaos.

To have a smooth functioning of blockchain technology in education, there is a need for standards from authoritative bodies like IEEE to set the rules for data privacy, metadata concerns, data storage and availability policies, the type of skills, credits and qualification, the type of data that can be transparent and the ones that need to be private, data governance policies, etc.

Finally, the need for addressing problems like what happens to the existing data in the systems, the possibility of any incorporation of existing and the new system, will the data be available entirely on the blockchain and the organization management when such a system will come into existence.

The cost of training the staff as for an individual without any technical background, the understanding of blockchain technology will be a challenge that will need to be addressed as well.


Universities That Have Implemented Blockchain

  • The largest private educational institute in Cyprus called the University of Nicosia has been among the ones to have a fully integrated blockchain infrastructure for student grades, qualification and certification information storage.
  • Perhaps, the most popular among the educational institutions in the world in terms of technology has implemented blockchain for their graduate students pursuing diploma courses.
  • Woolf University is another educational institution that is among the first blockchain-based universities that processes most of its student-related information with the use of blockchain.


Platforms That Have Implemented Blockchain in Education



Location: Cambridge, Massachusetts

Blockcerts is a platform in which the verification of academic certificates can be performed. The platform allows companies to review the credibility of the documents from the blockchain and sort out any falsified information.  The grades, transcripts, and diplomas are some of the documents that can be stored on their blockchain to have insight into past academic achievements.

Achievement: Over 600 students from MIT chose Blockcerts as the platform to receive their digital certificates. The records of these students will be stored permanently, with the possibility of future employers to access and verify them.



Location: London, England

APII enables the verification of credentials of the prospective students and professors. The platform comprises a combination of blockchain, smart contracts, and machine learning to perform the verification procedure.

The users on this platform need to create a profile and fill out their educational history along with transcripts. The blockchain is used for verification of the filled out information and performs a background check and then stores the information.

Achievement: APII along with The Open University has jointly created a platform for storing accreditation and qualification for student record keeping and creation of academic records for alumni from it.



Location: Kaunas, Lithuania

The BitDegree platform has blockchain ledgers and the availability of tokens as well. It is an online education platform with a focus on technology. There are courses such as Cryptocurrency for Dummies and other relevant courses on blockchain to drive people to enter a blockchain career. The tokens are provided in the form of a scholarship as a means to complete the course.

Achievement: The platform has been able to provide paid and free classes on cryptocurrencies to in-depth blockchain courses.


Gilgamesh Platform

Location: San Jose, California

Gilgamesh is a platform that is based on Ethereum smart connects. Students and authors can connect over a discussion on a novel or other forms of writing. The learners acquire incentives for engaging on the platform and the tokens can be used for purchasing academic e-books.

Achievement: The Gilgamesh app is available on iOS which provides book suggestions and interaction with other learners and professionals for knowledge sharing and a wallet to store the tokens as well.



Location: Chiasso, Switzerland

ODEM is a platform for educators and students to relevant resources and necessary courses. The smart contracts, students, and academic professionals agree upon the courses that need to be enrolled into for improving their professional backgrounds.

The ODEM ledger maintains the record of each course that a student has enrolled for as well as the record of courses that the professors have taught. This allows for boosting the careers of both the students and professors on the platform. The courses can be paid for by the ODEM tokens.

Achievement: The ODEM platform awarded skill badges for students and professors, concerning their necessary skill set and specialization in a specific area. The primary reason behind the creation of the badge is to enable students to take up courses by a professor whose badge displays more growth. On the other hand, students with more growth will have more professors willing with that student for improving their skills.


Sony Global Education

Location: Tokyo, Japan

Sony Global Education is yet another platform that maintains a record of student information and their academic achievements. This platform has partnered with IBM, which offers a blockchain platform for adding individual information of the academic achievements from multiple institutions. It allows for maintaining clear digital records of the students and their academic achievement history.

Achievement: With the use of the platform, Sony could provide certificates for a Global Math challenge. The certificate acts as a report that can help the participants to apply for future education and applications.


Blockchain Education Network

Location: Newark, Delaware

The Blockchain Education Network (BEN) is a blockchain platform comprising the records of students and alumni across the world that are associated with the blockchain and cryptocurrency initiative. It was initially started by students of MIT and the University of Michigan. Currently, BEN has more than 4000 members who share ideas and prototypes related to blockchain technology.

Achievement: It has been reported that the worth of the companies involved in blockchain technology through the platform has a worth of $11 billion.



Location: Kesklinna, Tallinn, Estonia

The platform uses blockchain technology for creating a register that comprises academic achievements and qualifications for various universities.  There is a provision for automatic assigning of scores to an individual based on the achievements and qualifications. These scores are accessible for the universities to plan the learning path based on the performance of the student.

Achievement: The Alpha version was released for becoming familiar with the app for the students and universities. The student app allows students to track their educational history whereas the educator-related app allows profiles of the professors, their approach to the teaching style, and different course offerings.



Location: Scottsdale, Arizona

Parchment is a platform that provides academic merit verification. Students can share their academic qualifications and achievements with future employers through this platform. K-12 institutions also benefit from the platform by uploading the developmental progress of a student. The higher education institution can benefit from the platform by tracking the academic merit, immutable diplomas, and processing different applications. Students can share their academic achievements with potential employers.

Achievement: The platform has formed a partnership with x2VOL. The provision of looking at a student’s academic career is possible with logs of service hours and their learning experience. This allows employers and universities to have a clearer look at the overall record of a student.


A Decision Pathway for Adopting Blockchain

  • The institutions must be wary of several factors before adopting blockchain. The possible factors that will be decisive in the adoption of a blockchain in an educational network are highlighted below.
  • Is there a need for a shared database?
  • Are there multiple numbers of parties interacting within the system?
  • Are there any conflicting interests and trust issues between them?
  • The transaction scenarios remain stable for a longer period.
  • Transactions are public.
  • Various rules for parties involved in communication within the system.



To sum up, blockchain technology has the potential to improve the educational sector in multiple ways. As the technology is related to the secured exchange of information and storage, it is perfect for educational institutions as there is critical information that is available in an educational network.

The use of blockchain has the capability of bringing more efficiency by reducing the need for manual workloads. Higher education and universities also benefit from the use of blockchain by safeguarding the credentials and copyright protection of researches and publications, thus eliminating any malpractice in terms of plagiarism.

The use of blockchain technology in education can help bring the students, industry professionals, researchers, and professors under one platform for meaningful sharing of information and resources. As technology advances, the benefits of implementing such technology is immense.

The acceptance of the technology and a significant amount of commitment to address the possible challenges that need to be taken into account to ensure a successful implementation. The factors such as cost, structure-based changes are involved which are huge decisions for an educational institution. Whether blockchain breaks into the world of education entirely is uncertain.

However, the substantial advantage that is witnessed as evidence with the use of blockchain in education is worth investing in. The promise of blockchain technology must be noted by the educational providers as this is a technology that might impact the educational sector soon.

Are you curious about how Linux OS operates? Have you been wondering why Linux is considered an efficient operating system?

If you are among those who are willing to delve into the basic concepts of Linux and add it to your existing skillset, then it is assured that you are likely to get more opportunities. On the other hand, the individuals who are absolute beginners may also benefit from a course that focuses on the very basics of the Linux operating system.

However, when you search for a beginner’s course, it is not simple due to the availability of multiple options claiming to provide comprehensive beginner’s content to guide you from the ground up until the most advanced topics.

In recent years, the most commonly found reviews of learners for courses highlight that the content is not at par or it is overwhelming and difficult to understand the concepts as it includes less amount of concepts suitable for beginners to understand easily.

The course Linux Operating System Fundamentals from Udemy is suitable for beginners who have limited knowledge about Linux and are willing to be introduced to the world of Linux and its historical information as well the offerings on the Linux Ecosystem.

Related: Udemy Review


What to Expect From the Course?

The course is designed for absolute beginners. It covers topics such as how Linux works, why is it important, the purpose of an operating system, and how Linux gained popularity in the IT industry.

If you have been looking for a comprehensive explanation for these topics, then this course is for you. The goal of the course is to provide a simplistic and conceptual introduction to the core topics of Linux as an operating system.

The course follows a visual and conceptual approach for presenting the concepts of the course. You can expect to be thoroughly equipped with Linux fundamentals after the course that will help you to move forward to more advanced concepts on Linux.

The necessity of having a strong foundation of Linux concepts allows tackling more complex technical terminologies and problems associated with the domain of the operating system. The takeaways from this course are listed below.

  • The basics of the Linux operating system.
  • The importance of Linux and how it is used.
  • The key foundations of how to use Linux.

There are no prerequisites for taking the course.


About the Instructor

The course is offered by Linux Academy on Udemy. Linux Academy focuses on providing high-quality training at an affordable price. They offer courses on Linux, cloud technology, AWS, OpenStack, DevOps, Azure, and Big Data. The Linux Academy has an overall rating of 4.5 with over 101,065 reviews. They have trained over 677,376 students over 20 courses that are being offered by them.


Course Contents

Section 1: Introduction

About this course

The course is introduced by the instructor and explains that the course is an overview of Linux. The course is not technical in terms of the operating system itself. It is primarily focused on providing a broad perspective of what a Linux operating system is and how to use it. The course is intended for learners who are absolute beginners and have never heard of Linux.

The purpose of mentioning the course as non-technical is because there will be no actual interactions with the Linux system in this course. The importance of this course is to drive new learners to the idea of a Linux operating system and develop a keen interest to know more in-depth in the future.

The learners will be able to proceed with more advanced courses once the terminologies are clear with the help of this course. This course does not require you to complete an exam for certification. However, you are eligible to receive a certificate of completion from Udemy.

A brief overview of the course is presented by the instructor that states the process being followed. The course has an interactive approach with the help of an interactive diagram. Each topic is broken into subtopics that have their separate video. 

The interactive diagram is an interface that includes a list of all the topics and the sub-topics that are available for the course. The history of various operating systems is explained in this course and the differentiation of Linux and the other operating systems that are available today.

About the Tutor

The course is presented by Kenny Armstrong who has been working with Linux for nearly two decades. He has been part of various deployments related to Linux in the public sector, private sector, and higher education. The tutor explains his background and gets you started with the course.

Free Linux Academy Community Account (Required for Bonus labs and flashcards)

The section is presented by the vice president of Linux Academy. He is responsible for the curriculum development at Linux Academy. There is free access provided to hands-on lab sessions and flashcards and community features provided separately on the Linux Academy platform.

Although there is a provision for free access, it has been explained that this process is completely optional. The advantage of the access of the community on their platform is the provision of bonus materials and the possibility of practicing your hands-on skills. There is an instruction video offered which will guide regarding the sign-up procedure on their community account.

There is a provision for free access to cloud-based environments as well as Microsoft Azure and similar environments. There is a demonstration of all the possible options that come along with a sign up on their community platform.


Section 2: What is an Operating System?

Quick History of Operating Systems

The first part of this section introduces the history of operating systems. It has been explained that to understand Linux better, one must have an overview of what constitutes an operating system. The tutor explains the concepts by beginning with what is an operating system.

Every computer has hardware that includes hard drives, monitors and RAM, and so on. In order, for hardware to perform any action, it needs software, and here is where the role of a kernel comes into focus. The kernel is a component in an operating system. It is rightly termed as the core of the operating system from a broader perspective.

The kernel is responsible for communicating with your hardware through devices and software.  It is further explained that the kernel acts like a piece of software within the system that can send information back and forth to the computer’s hardware. The libraries and driver-assist the kernel to perform these actions efficiently. Various types of device drivers communicate with different hardware to carry out certain functions.

For example, a driver that communicates with hard disk drivers is associated with various types of video cards. The drivers dealing with devices such as DVD drivers, Blu-ray drivers interact through various programs. Another example is if you are viewing the presentation in a web-browser, then the web browser acts as the application that needs to interact with the display for you to view the result.

The applications translate the communications into a form that is understandable by the kernel so that the messages are sent down to the hardware to perform the specified function. The tutor further delves into the areas of an operating system.

It is further explained that the protected region that is created during the functioning of a system is the kernel space, which is responsible for communicating directly with different hardware. The instructor explores the history of the operating system and the very first one which was released in 1956 by IBM.

There is an explanation on the Unix operating system that was released in 1973, which is considered as the base of many modern-day operating systems including Linux and Mac OS. The Unix operating system was used for many research works and it was originally developed by Bell Labs.

The Apple 2 operating system is discussed in detail, followed by the DOS by Microsoft and the operating system released by IBM in 1981 which allowed it to perform business applications to handle spreadsheets and e-mail and text processing.

There is a mention about the affordability of the Apple and IBM systems and the birth of the Windows system that overtook the DOS systems. Finally, a note on the approach by companies in the 1980s for looking into shrinking the computing devices into smaller units that became the revolution for personal computers and laptops in the years to follow.

Popular Operating Systems

The tutor explores this topic on popular operating systems that are prevailing in the market today. The first one is the most familiar one which is the Windows Operating system. The instructor emphasizes the fact of the availability and the capability of the Windows operating system that has become the standard in schools, the IT industry, and several PC vendors that prefer to offer the Windows operating system by default.

The Windows OS is popular due to a well-designed ecosystem in its offering along with a plethora of options and functionalities that are available with Windows OS. Another popular operating system is the MAC OS by Apple.

The MAC OS is based on Unix operating system architecture. The similarity in both operating systems has been explained as well. A look at proprietary software and bug fixes has been explored including the pricing factors that exist for these operating systems.

How Linux Came to Be

This part focuses on the emergence of Linux. The origins of Linux dates back to the early 1990s by an individual named Linus at the University of Helsinki in Finland. He wrote a book on how operating systems work and created a separate operating system that was presumed to be a clone of Unix. The students were able to study the construction and operation of the Unix operating system.

Most research organizations were using Unix systems and were considered a reliable operating system that was robust. The issue with Unix systems was the cost factor that inspired the creation of Linux. With the use of its codebase and kernel, the possibility of creating its operating system became possible for Linus.

This was the beginning of the creation of the Linux operating system, which started as creating a clone of the Unix operating system for personal usage. Furthermore, the instructor added additional details of how the availability of Linux came into the open-source market.


Section 3: The Open Source Movement

GNU and the Free Software Foundation

The section describes the Canoe project. This project was started by a programmer named Richard M. Stallman who was an operating system developer at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was of the view that anyone with a computer should have access to the source codes so that they can fix any problem by themselves by accessing the source code. 

The Canoe project began in 1983, which aimed at developing a free open-source operating system. The instructor deep dives further into how clone applications were developed with codes written from the scratch for the project. In 1985, the Free Software Foundation (FSF) was founded by Stallman, which aimed to provide access to every user to the source codes.

There is a mention of the GPL license as well. Red Hat buying Cygnus and the open-source movement has been explained in detail. The issues where not every company was willing to give away their source code for free is touched upon in-depth.

The Open Source Initiative

What is the Open Source Initiative? The tutor deep-dives into the topic and explains its origins that date back to the early to mid-1990s. The internet browser competition was heating up in the market. It was at the time that you needed to have a web browser that involved payment for the same.

This was the time that Microsoft Windows gained prominence with its offering of Internet Explorer. As the demand for Microsoft Windows skyrocketed, competitors like Netscape started giving away their browser for free. However, Netscape did not come pre-installed in comparison with Microsoft Windows.

Therefore, to tackle this problem, Netscape started giving away their source code for free along with the browser in the offering. The purpose was to see if people like the browser then they could modify the browser with further improvements and add useful features.

Although Netscape didn’t survive the competition and closed its door, the source code remained which was eventually used as a base for the Mozilla Firefox web browser that we have today.

The instructor explores the history behind the open-source initiative that was formed in the year 1998. There is an explanation on topics related to licensing available today and well as Apache Tomcat, Apache License, Mozilla Public License, and M.I.T license. There is also a description of how a particular software and source code is made available to the open-source market.


Section 4: Basics of a Linux Distribution

Components of a Linux Distribution

This section discusses the Linux distribution. The kernel is the core of an operating system but to be able to perform something useful with your computer, there is a need for certain pieces of software for it. Therefore, there are library file device drivers along with the kernel and user applications that complete a Linux distribution.  There is an explanation of how one can construct a Linux distribution.

The need for compiling the source code into the actual binary components which are essential software items for a computer to work with by adding them to the operating system as per the need. There is a mention about the possibility of downloading the software and configuring your hard drive to keep the Linux installation and to be able to select the applications that you want to use on your computer.

The shortcomings and updates to tackle the specific problems have been explained in detail. Finally, the various types of Linux distributions that are used in organizations today are being discussed as well.

RPM-Based Distributions

The lesson focuses on the Linux distribution using RPF.  The various types of distribution and specifically focused on a detailed discussion on the topic related to RPF based distribution and Debian based distribution. The RPF based distributions are most commonly found within an enterprise environment. The use of this distribution is to be able to track the type of software that is being installed. 

Other features include installation of software updates, uninstalling software, and checking the contents of the software packages. The formation of Red Hat in 1994 and how this company decided to work on a workstation Linux operating system came into existence has been explained. The foundation of Red Hat Linux and RedHat Enterprise Linux has been discussed in detail as well.

Debian Based Distributions

This section looks into Debian package management. Amongst the Linux distributions, the Debian package management has been the longest surviving one due to its ease of installation and use. It is considered to be a very stable software.

The instructor explains an important concept on how Debian has become such a stable offering and the use of older software in it as compared to other Linux distributions. The advantage of having a year-old software is that the bugs have all been fixed; therefore, it avoids any new bugs that are prevalent in the newer software.

Debian is considered to be the base of many Linux distributions. Many communities have taken various tools to new heights by using Linux distributions with their tweaks and additions, however, there are still some core features of Debian that exists in them.

Furthermore, the tutor explains ethical hackers who work with different Linux distributions. Finally, an explanation of other newer Linux distributions such as Linux Mint along with several others and their uses.


Section 5: Uses of Linux

Server Systems

Linux has grown in prominence due to its usage as a server operating system. The very first uses of a web server were found in the Apache project that can run Microsoft Windows, Macintosh OS, BSD Unix OS. Another feature that has made Linux popular is its usability for system administration. Various web servers are available for Linux.

Among them, the ones that are used in enterprises are Apache and engine X. The ease of use in terms of sending mail from one server to another has also worked in favor of Linux. The tutor explains the available open-source database systems that run on Linux such as Oracle. The topics on Red Hat Enterprise Linux are looked upon in detail as well in this lesson.

Mobile Devices

The lesson primarily looks into Linux as a mobile platform and its history as a mobile platform. It began in the year 2000 when a group of Linux developers created familiar Linux. The initial release was for the AI pack. This pack had pre-installed applications that were handy for a personal device.

The development of memo operating systems, Ubuntu mobile, GPS devices that used Linux and Linux for Android has been discussed in detail in this section. The instructor further explains how Linux for the mobile platform is growing in recent years but it is yet to be seen how much of the integration we might be able to see in terms of Linux as an operating system for the mobile devices.

Cloud Infrastructure

This is the final lesson for Linux fundamentals. The largest usage of Linux that is witnessed in the IT industry is for the cloud infrastructure. With the growing popularity of cloud computing technology, every business is aiming for a shift towards the cloud platform due to its potential and advantages.  So how does Linux fit into the cloud platform?

The tutor explains that all the services that are offered on the cloud platform are built entirely on Linux. Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud are some of the well-known cloud platforms that have used Linux. Perhaps the largest among them are Amazon web services and Netflix that also have their platforms built entirely on Linux.  Finally, the course is concluded with some additional information and resources that are shared by the instructor.


Section 6: Conclusion

Next Steps for Further Study

A final note from the instructor to conclude the course. The instructor highlights the most important concepts from the course that one must remember.  The course introduced various concepts that are listed in the following section.

  • General operating system history.
  • First usage of the operating system and its implementation on large mainframe computers.
  • Linux development history.
  • Linux kernel and Linux distributions.
  • General open-source software history.
  • Free software movement.
  • Open source initiative.
  • Applications on a Linux system.

The course is wrapped up with final thoughts on important certifications that learners can look for and other courses that are available on Linux academy.

Benefits of the Course

  • Clarity of basic concepts of Linux for absolute beginners, thus forming your learning path to master advanced concepts in the future.
  • Access to the learning community that comprises tutors and experienced individuals who share important resources and doubts can be cleared as well.
  • Certificate of completion.
  • Direct access to the instructor for Q&A for the paid version on Udemy.

Related: Top 10 Linux Online Courses


Overall Ratings of the Course

  • Instructor Expertise: 5
  • Additional Resources: 3
  • Course Content Quality: 5
  • Career Value: 5
  • Delivery of the Content: 5
  • Visuals and Readability: 5
  • Examples: 5
  • Speed of Delivering the Content: 4
  • Basic Concepts: 5
  • Overall Rating: 4.5

In these challenging business times, many companies are considering how to access the expertise and specialist skills they need to grow, without taking on the long-term commitment of additional employees.

One cost-effective solution is to make use of the consulting skills of external contractors on a fixed-term or project basis.

In this guide, we’ll look in some detail at what it actually means to be a consultant, the different types of consulting, consider the pros and cons of different kinds of management consulting jobs.

We’ll also consider how to enter the consulting industry, and how you can successfully approach the best consulting firms to launch your consulting career.


What is a consultant?

According to the Oxford dictionary, a consultant is ‘a person who provides expert advice professionally’.

If you have specialist skills and a depth of expertise, a consulting career may be an extremely rewarding option, both professionally and financially.


Why do businesses employ consultants?

Businesses will employ a consultant for several different reasons and there are various types of consulting. For example, one organization considering a major transformation may bring in a top consultant company, to provide an outside perspective and propose objective solutions

Another may hire consultants to evaluate current working practices and identify potential efficiencies. A third may source external consultants to provide innovative marketing strategies or to create tailored learning solutions. Or a fourth may require advice on IT advances so they can stay ahead of the market.


Pros and cons of being a self-employed consultant

With the huge shifts in the labor market, more and more experienced professionals find themselves at the risk of losing their jobs. 

As organizations shed layers of management, the opportunities to find an equivalent position are few.

However, the need for the skills that these managers gained over years, hasn’t disappeared. Therefore, one possible avenue for an ‘off boarded’ manager or specialist to consider is that of launching a consulting career.


Choose your own work

If you have a wide network of professional contacts and are confident that you can package and sell your consulting skills, setting up your own consultancy may be a great option. Many of us dream of being our own boss.

You’ll be free to accept the consulting jobs you want, with clients you choose, and to set your own price.  Your current employer may even be willing to hire you for projects on that basis – they already know you have the relevant personal experience!

No guarantees

On the other hand, independent consulting does have its downsides. The most obvious is that there won’t be a guaranteed monthly salary to rely on.

Even with good contacts, you’ll have to spend time and energy to market your consulting skills and find new clients. You’ll have to get used to creating proposals that may never materialize into paid business consulting jobs.

Creating positive working relationships and building your reputation will also take hard work and patience, but if you’re ready for the challenge – go for it!


Pros and cons of working for a niche agency

Some of the best management consultant jobs can be found within smaller niche agencies that have made their reputation in a specific area of expertise, for example, CAD design or customer service strategy. Their reputations rely on their depth of knowledge and ability to deliver best-in-class solutions.

If you have a specialist, rather than generalist, relevant experience in a specific area, joining a consultancy that targets your niche may be a great option. You’ll really get the opportunity to use your knowledge on projects that interest and stretch you, as well as being acknowledged for your expertise.

Don’t get stuck in a rut

The downside may be that you’ll be working in a narrow area, so if you’re at a stage in life where you are ready to branch out and broaden your skills, you may find yourself feeling a bit restricted.


Pros and cons of working for the best consulting firms

Many of those who want to launch their career in the consulting industry start by aiming for management consultant jobs with the best consulting firms which are known all over the globe.

There’s no doubt that they are a great launching pad for future success. You will be expected to stretch yourself beyond your limits to meet the challenges of major projects. You’ll be surrounded by other ambitious professionals who are seeking to climb the ladder into senior positions.

Your knowledge and skills will need to be cutting edge. It’s an exciting, high-pressured environment. A good stint for one of the majors will look impressive on your CV and open many doors.

Results, results, results

The cons of working for a top consultant company?  It’s not really a con, but you’ll be expected to generate business for the firm as well as work directly on different projects. You’ll be judged strictly on your results – and there are no excuses.

So expect to work under constant pressure if you want to progress through the ranks.  If that’s something you enjoy – perfect.  However, if you’re at a stage in life where you want to work at your own pace, and work/life balance is your priority, pick the company with care and ensure you understand their expectations.


Analyze your skills

Before you take the plunge and decide to launch your consulting career, it’s important to take a systematic approach. 

Consultants sell their expertise, so the first step in deciding whether consultancy is the right move for you is to really take a look at your career to date.

Track record of achievement

Analyze all your relevant experience – not in terms of job titles, but in terms of achievements, and challenges. Where have you shown outstanding ability or skills? What kind of projects have you delivered to your employers? What results have you achieved?

What are your formal qualifications?

Also, you’ll need to demonstrate the hard skills that you can bring to the table. You’ll be selling yourself as an expert, so there’s probably an expectation that you have some academic achievement under your belt.

If you achieved your most recent degree was some years ago, can you show what you have studied to keep your qualifications updated and relevant?  If your early academic record wasn’t that impressive, how can you show that you have the intellectual ability to deal with complex professional issues?

Professional training

What other training and certifications have you completed in your career, which demonstrate that you have continued to grow and develop your knowledge?

Again, you’ll be selling your expertise to other organizations, so it’s natural that they’ll expect you to be more highly qualified in a subject area than they are.

Memberships of professional bodies

In addition, do you hold memberships of professional bodies related to your industry, and if so, at what level? These are important to show that you have attained certain standards related to your profession and are committed to staying updated about developments.

Let’s say you’re an experienced petroleum engineer, looking for management consulting jobs in the energy sector. Active membership of a national Society of Petroleum Engineers, and giving presentations at meetings and conferences, will enhance your credibility

If you’ve worked in HR for twenty years, you’ll certainly have plenty of knowledge, but a senior CIPD or SHRIM membership will confirm your commitment to the best and most current HR practices.

So while your experience and achievement are really what counts, don’t underestimate the need to demonstrate that you have the theoretical knowledge and industry background to back up your claims to be an expert.


Start your search

Once you’re clear that you have the relevant experience to transition into a consulting career, as well as the hard and soft skills that you’ll require, so you need to start your search for the perfect consulting opportunity.

The first step is to find out more about what consulting firms are really looking for in the people they employ. There are several ways you can approach your research, here are a few ideas to get you started.

  • Go to the websites of what you believe are the best consulting firms for your particular niche. Are you looking for management consultant jobs, or are your skills more specialized? See if you can identify any of their clients who might require your services.  Check out details of any past success stories, and consider how you might have been able to contribute.
  • Check out LinkedIn profiles of consultants and the best consulting firms. There are many groups on LinkedIn which you can join and follow. They can be really useful in helping you to understand the direction being taken by thought leaders in the profession, and start to become familiar with the approaches being used (This will be especially valuable in interviews, or when pitching to clients as an independent).

As well as taking a big picture approach to the industry, you’ll want to narrow down your search so that it fits your needs and your lifestyle. For example, would you be willing to relocate for the perfect opportunity?

If that isn’t an option, you’ll want to limit the geographical range of your search. Are you willing to start at the bottom, in a junior consulting position, and work your way up the ladder? If you are in the latter stages of your career that may not be an attractive option.

Once you’ve identified your ‘must-haves’, it’s time to start searching in earnest for the right opportunity. Industry publications can be a source of employment opportunities, but these days candidates are more likely to head straight to the major job boards in search of vacancies.

On one level, this makes job-hunting far easier and less time-consuming, but the downside is that the applicant field is crowded.

Each position advertised can attract hundreds, if not thousands of applications, and in most cases, an automated filtering system is used to weed out any applications which don’t meet the requirements listed in the advert.

So, even when you find what you believe could be an ideal consulting job for you, it won’t be enough to tweak a bit your existing resume, add a few more lines, and send it off, hoping that someone will read between the lines.

Chances are no human being will ever set eyes on it, so, to increase your chances of success, this is the right time to get smart about the selection process.


Updating your CV

Any top consultant company will be looking for the best of the best, so your CV has to show clearly that you’re going to bring something special to their team.

  • First impressions count. Make sure you use a professional and most updated template. There’re plenty of online resources that will help you design your CV with an attractive presentation.
  • Work on your personal as well as professional statement and make it count. It’ll be the foremost thing a hiring manager scans, so it has to make an impact. In no more than 80 words (three to four sentences) outline who you’re, your most recent and relevant qualifications and academic degree as a consultant, track record of your professional experience and success. End by stating that you are finding a consultant job, and why.
  • Consider it prohibited to cut and paste the job description to include in your CV. The recruiter wants to know what you’ve achieved, not what your employer hoped you’d do.
  • Look at the keywords in the job posting. What does the employer say they’re looking for in their ideal candidate? Make sure you include the exact terms they use in your CV. This will increase your chances of passing through the filtering process and your CV being reviewed by a human being.
  • When describing your employment history, don’t forget to mention your soft skills at every point. It takes great interpersonal skills to deal with clients and lead a project team to success.
  • Include the details of the highest qualification, along with additional certifications that may support your application.
  • Don’t neglect to write a strong cover letter, as, in a candidate field where applicants are more or less on the same level, it can make the difference. No more than one page, it should describe your strengths. Mention your most significant professional achievements, and state clearly how you’ll add value to the firm.


Attend to your image

When you decide to go for a consulting job, you should expect that a potential employer will do thorough background checks on you. As part of your preparation for going through the hiring process, attend to your social media. 

Even if it’s something you don’t usually pay much attention to, have a look at your online profiles, and ask yourself how professional do you look?  A company that’s going to hire you will be aware that, in turn, their clients may conduct a search on you.

Without a doubt the most important platform is LinkedIn. Does your CV on LinkedIn match the updated CV you’ve just prepared? Do you have plenty of recommendations from colleagues and clients describing their positive experiences of working with you? 

Are you a member of any relevant groups to keep you updated?  Who are you following? The answers to these and other questions all give clues about your professional standing and potential as a consultant.


Select your referees

As part of their due diligence during the hiring process, any potential employer will want to consult your referees. Most companies will issue a letter confirming employment, without any further details.

In many organizations, for legal reasons, managers are not permitted to provide detailed personal references, so first ascertain whether your chosen referee is actually in a position to provide one.

An alternative would be to select managers who have known you well in the past, but who have moved on from the organization where you worked together.

Never list your referees on your CV. If a hiring manager wants to contact them, you will provide relevant details. Before you offer any name or contact details of a referee, you should of course obtain their permission, and let them know in advance who might be approaching them. Don’t expect your referee to respond to multiple requests from random companies.

You should be informed when your referee has been contacted.  Ensure you acknowledge and thank them for their support in developing your career.


The interview

Success! Your CV has opened the door and you’ve been invited to an interview with a consulting firm that you’ve dreamed of working for.

Now, the positive impression you make will decide whether your application process is successful.

Keep in mind that there will probably be other applicants under consideration, so every aspect of how you present yourself can give you the edge.

Dress for success. This almost goes without saying. Of course, you will look professional and immaculately groomed. However, also take into account the culture of the firm you’re hoping to join.

Are they young, dynamic, cutting edge? Are they mature, serious experts who aim to exude gravitas? These kinds of details can help you select the right heels or tie color for the interview.

Know your facts. You’ll no doubt be talking through the achievements listed on your CV. If you have a portfolio of (non-confidential) documents that can further illustrate the nature of your work, this will add strength to the discussion.

Don’t be tempted though, to share sensitive information from your current or previous employers no matter how relevant you think it may be.  A hiring manager may well show interest but will likely conclude that you cannot be trusted to keep company or client information confidential. And that’s not a good look for a consultant.

Ensure that you have the names of all your interviewers and after the interview, contact them to thank them for their time

The selection process takes time so avoid repeated calls and emails to find out what’s happening.  You won’t speed up the hiring process, and you may come across as desperate. Wait patiently. No news is good news, because candidates who are rejected are often informed first.


Working as an independent consultant

In this guide, we’ve mainly focused on how to get management consultant jobs or business consultant jobs, within an established consulting firm.

But as we mentioned earlier, working independently is a viable option for many professionals. It can also be attractive for companies who need to hire experts as the cost of an independent contractor is likely to be lower than that of a consulting firm with high overheads to cover.

Much of the process we described above will be relevant if you decide to branch out on your own as a consultant.

You’ll still need to search for clients and apply for particular projects. You’ll still need to demonstrate your hard and soft skills. With each potential client, you’ll go through a selection process, vying with other consultants to win the project.

Your clients will most likely do their due diligence with a background search, so again you’ll need to focus on every aspect of the professional image you project.

In addition, you’ll need a fair proportion of your time on sales and marketing. Even if you get off to a great start with a fantastic project, things can change in the business environment. It will be a mistake to depend too much on one client to sustain you in the future.

However, developing your reputation as an outstanding independent expert can pay off in the long run. If you have an entrepreneurial spirit and the resources to support you as you grow your consulting business, you’ll have the freedom you need to build a great consulting career.



We hope this guide has given you an overview of what you should consider if you want to embark on a consulting career, and how you can approach your search for consulting jobs.

Trust your skills and abilities and you’re going to be amazing!

How do you prefer to steer your career graph?

If you are among those individuals looking to master the skills of web development, then the understanding of JavaScript libraries is a must. React is a JavaScript library that is one of the most popular libraries among the developer community.

React enables you to develop user interfaces with the use of separate components which simplifies the developmental process. The familiarity with the concepts of React and deepening the coding skills of web development is of utmost importance in this field, hence you must acquire your skill set in the React environment.

An online platform for learning various technical courses has been the trend in recent times. However, there are numerous offerings on online platforms and it is often confusing as to which course to choose from. Therefore, it is crucial to select the right course that is not overwhelming to begin learning a new concept.

Many introductory courses focus on providing too much content at once which makes the course lengthy and confusing to understand the basic concepts precisely. It is a known fact that without the basics, you can’t master the advanced concepts especially in the field of technology.

A short introductory course called React Fundamentals is offered on Udemy. The course is beneficial for individuals looking to learn React from the scratch. There is a prerequisite for the course that requires a fair understanding of JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. You will learn how to set up the React environment and be familiar with concepts on React elements, JSX, components, props, state, lifecycle methods, containers, form and input managing, conditional rendering, and React-router V4.



What is React?

React is a JavaScript library that was released by Facebook in 2013. The main objective was to simplify the development of user interfaces. React is widely used for building single-page web applications.

The user interface is simplified by dividing it into a group of components. The official website defines React as a declarative, efficient, and flexible JavaScript library for building user interfaces. It lets you compose complex UIs from small and isolated pieces of code called components.


React JavaScript Popularity

React has been widely used and gained popularity due to various reasons that are listed below.

  • React is not complex and it can be easily integrated into existing products.
  • Google’s Angular 2.x version was considered difficult as opposed to its previous version. On the other hand, React was released at the same time which proved to be more promising with improved execution speed that caught the attention of the developers in the technical industry.
  • React is developed by a reputed company in the field of technology thus gaining an upper hand among the developers.


What to expect from the course?

The course is designed for beginners and introduces all the important concepts from the ground up. The course follows a practical approach in which each of the concepts is demonstrated with the help of an example.

After the course, you are expected to understand the fundamentals of React, the usage of some of ES6/ES7 JavaScript features, the use of de-facto standard routing solutions for React applications that falls under React Router concepts, and learn to maintain and organize the React codebase.

Section 1: React Elements

Setting React Environment

The first section introduces important information while setting up the React environment.  The tutor demonstrates every step that needs to be followed while setting up the environment. All the information on installation and get help page has been explored along with additional information on settings have been provided.

The creation of the app, first arguments, project directory, and the developmental server has been demonstrated well for easy understanding of the installation part.

React Elements

The React elements section contains the explanation on the Folles index and the options available under it. The first one is the library itself without which the creation of React elements is not possible. There is an explanation about importing the CSSA file.

The instructor also focuses upon the app components and briefly introduces a service worker that allows for an app to load faster. There is also an explanation about the object element and DOM container. A description and an example are provided on how to create your own React element and render it to DOM.


This part explains the reactive element and the coding for it. The syntax extension to JavaScript for the reactive element is called the JSX. The usage of Babel is explained as well. JSX fully supports JavaScript and the concepts are demonstrated with the help of a follow-along example to understand the concepts more clearly.


The tutor focuses on the React components with the help of an example. To create your custom component, the syntax that is required is described in detail. The use of lowercase and capitalized names in different scenarios have been explored in this section. The components are considered to be independent and reusable bits of code.

The purpose is similar to that of the JavaScript function but differentiates by working in isolation that returns HTML with the use of a render function. Ideally, there are two types of components, namely class components, and function components. The functional components have been demonstrated with the help of an example.


The section explores the topic of props. The import and export from the React library while creating React elements have been discussed in detail. Props are arguments that are passed into React components.

The usage of props and their significance has been explained as well. React props are similar to a function argument in JavaScript and attributes in HTML. The tutor also explains shorthand for syntax that is important for using React props.


React components comprises a built-in state object which lets you store property values belonging to the component. In a situation, when the state object changes then the component re-renders as well.

To extend the react component, the usage of state functionalities is being explained in detail with an example. The change of directories that may be required are specified and a note on the same page rendering.


The components in React have a lifecycle and it can be monitored and manipulated during the phases of mounting, updating, and unmounting.

The concepts are described with the help of an example that focused on creating a TV app for explanation purposes. The explanation of data loading and manipulation and the use of containers are provided.

Asynchronous Calls

In this section, the instructor explains the use of a server for requesting to install a library. The use of Flash with no package manager has been mentioned briefly. The fetching of data from an API has been covered with an example for better understanding.


The need for creating separate components is covered in this section. The necessity of presentational components and container components are differentiated well. The availability of the functionalities inside a container and explored in detail.

It is also mentioned that most of the time a container is likely to be stateful.  All of the concepts in terms of containers are demonstrated with a follow-along example.


Section 2: React Forms and Lists

Lists and Keys

The section delves into the list folder. The use of map function and the primary use of lists and keys are covered thoroughly with practical examples for clarity.

The process of adding a key to the list system and the use of index as a key as a last resort. The instructor explains the need to use Id that is always unique for your list item.

Refactoring List Component

The tutor emphasizes how additional components can be created. The need for making them more readable and more semantic and why it is a good practice to do so. Furthermore, the new variable within the time series was demonstrated with the example.

Forms (Input)

This section focuses on getting an event object from the on-change handler as well as obtaining the value of the input and getting the event along with it.

Conditional Rendering

The concept of conditional rendering has been explained while describing how a friendly message can be sent from the API from a given input. The possibility of adding a fetching property has been explained as well. This concept is covered in detail as it is considered very important.

Images (Loader Component)

This section explains how to add images with the help of React. The process of creating a folder and the use of a loader component has been covered. The possibility of doing so on an element level has also been described well. It is important to note that the pixel has to be set appropriately while adding the images to React.


Section 3: React Router

Setting Up React Router

This section mainly focuses on NPM install and the overall installation procedures of React Router. The creation of additional components that includes all the routes is demonstrated with the example.

The main components, props, and switches are important during this procedure. It is essential to provide the exact route path. The use of a rock crawler to run the series container is also mentioned in this process.

Setting Routes

The section explains the use of a single series for example dealing with TV series while creating the container. The importance of having an additional route while creating a single series container has been shown in the example. The process of importing single series has been demonstrated as well. 

Using Route Params

This section delves into the functions that are needed to make the results linkable. The instructor demonstrates the options of how to add the link. The need for making the link dynamic is important that will display the correct ID. 


About the Instructor

The course is designed and taught by an expert tutor, Edvinas Daugridas. He is a software engineer by profession and working with a leading company in customer support for mobile carriers in the US. The tutor prefers to be involved with writing and promoting clean and well-organized code that is easily maintainable.

He believes that learning new concepts and models is the nature of individuals working in the technical industry, therefore one must keep updating themselves. The course on React fundamentals is a beginner level course. However, there is a prerequisite that requires the student to have some basic understanding of HTML and CSS, and JavaScript.


Key Features of React

JSX: JSX stands for JavaScript XML. It is an HTML or XML kind of syntax that is used by React that is processed into the framework. The ES6 is extended to have HTML like text within the React code. It is highly recommendable to use JSX when working with React.

Components of React: ReactJS applications consist of multiple components. Each component has its controls which can be reused. The reusability of the codes is beneficial for large scale projects.

Data binding: ReactJs has a unidirectional data flow structure which gives better control in the application leading to increased efficiency.

Simplicity and Performance: React codes are easy to understand and implement, thus making the application simpler. The use of a virtual DOM helps to perform better as compared to other frameworks.

Due to the DOM residing in the memory, the components that are created are not written directly to the DOM. Therefore, you are dealing with virtual components that will act as the DOM leading to faster performance.

Virtual DOM: Virtual DOM represents the DOM object. In case of modifications that may take place in the web application, the complete user interface is displayed in virtual DOM representation. This is followed by performing a check between the previous DOM representation and the current one.

On completion, the actual DOM updates the things which had actual changes. This helps in a lesser wastage of memory.


Advantages of React

  • ReactJS has numerous tutorials and documentation along with training resources which makes it easier to learn.
  • Due to the use of lesser coding, the applications are faster and have more functionalities.
  • There are various components of React with logic and controls. These components allow for the reusability of HTML codes. The reusability feature helps to develop applications easily with lesser time.
  • The virtual DOM is responsible for faster performance by the applications.
  • React developer tools are added to browsers in the form of extensions and it allows the developers to inspect as per the needs.
  • A search engine faces a problem to read a heavily coded JavaScript application. ReactJS overcomes such problems as applications based on React can run on the server and the virtual DOM will forward a web page at regular intervals thus making it SEO friendly.
  • The native tools are responsible for testing and debugging the codes.
  • There is the provision of a large JavaScript library.


The role of React.js Developers

  • To discuss with the development team with interface related ideas and applications
  • Validating the application requirements and interface design.
  • The identification of web-based interaction possibilities.
  • The development of a responsive user-interface.
  • Development of faster applications.
  • The use of JavaScript with React.js workflows related to writing codes needed for application interface development.
  • Monitoring and handling troubleshooting interface software.
  • Debugging of applications.
  • Overall improvement of front-end performance.
  • Documenting the newer changes and updates for developing applications.
  • Implementation of front-end architecture.


React Developer Requirements

  • A technical background is a must, preferably a bachelor’s or master’s degree in computer science and information technology.
  • Knowledge of JavaScript, CSS, and HTML, and other front-end languages.
  • In-depth knowledge of React tools such as React.js, Webpack, Redux, Flux, and Enzyme.
  • Experience with user interface development.
  • Testing of frameworks is essential.
  • Browser-related debugging and performance testing of software is necessary.
  • Troubleshooting skills are a must.
  • Project management skills for leadership roles.


Benefits of this course

  • Learning Path

The advantage of this course on React fundamentals is the content that has been provided for a beginner course. The course doesn’t overwhelm the newcomers as certain introductory courses focus on many concepts at once which confuses them. It follows a very simple approach and begins from very scratch with the installation process.

There are provisions for additional resources as well. The course is well-suited for beginners and many important concepts are covered for React that are crucial for the success of a developer with the knowledge of React among his skill set. The core concepts are explained well. A major benefit is that all the concepts are also demonstrated with an example that learners can practice and improve on the coding skills as well.

The hands-on experience is essential for a career as a developer, hence this course builds upon these skills. There are simplified examples and a follow-along approach.  Another factor that this course could be preferred is the duration of the content. There are no lengthy explanations and complicated examples. All the content is presented in a simplified manner.

  • Certification

The course will provide certification of completion. It is a free tutorial available on Udemy. However, there is access to online content, certification, and direct access to the instructor for Q&A, and direct reply from the instructor. It is important to note that access to online content is available for the free version and the remaining options from the paid version are not being offered.

  • Learning Community

You will get access to the learning community on Udemy consisting of students and tutors. The benefits of such access to a learning community are the availability of important resources and tips that are shared in the forum. You can also post your questions on the forum and get explanations from experienced professionals and tutors who are actively communicating on this platform.

  • Hands-on Approach

The course provides a hands-on learning experience. This course is designed to provide sufficient exposure to writing the codes and understanding the concepts that are being taught theoretically. A hands-on approach lets you grasp the concept much faster. Additionally, every installation has been demonstrated.

The examples that are being covered are also shown practically, thus enhancing the overall learning process. The tutor has used a single example of creating a TV series app which has been used for each concept being explained. This helps to understand the practical part more clearly as too many examples can lead to confusion over its implementation.

The course is a perfect balance of theory and practical knowledge and provides crucial information along with additional resources.


Who is the course most suited for?

The course is well-suited for absolute beginners. It is designed with a strong focus on building a hands-on experience. If you are looking to begin your career in the web development sector, then set the right foundations is crucial.

There is a tremendous amount of competition in the job market for developers and only the best ones get hired. However, as a developer the employers are on the lookout for individuals with strong hands-on experience and coding experience, therefore it is a must to build them from the very core concepts in the initial phases.

The knowledge of React is highly in demand in the current market due to numerous advantages and faster performance of the achievable applications. The job role of developers is constant and the professionals with exposure to newer technologies are given importance for leadership roles.

It is a valuable investment of your time if you take up the course and get your first exposure to the world of web and application development.


Overall Rating of the Course

  • Instructor Expertise: 4
  • Additional Resources: 2
  • Course Content Quality: 4
  • Career Value: 5
  • Delivery of the Content: 3.5
  • Visuals and Readability: 2.5
  • Examples: 5
  • Speed of Delivering the Content: 3
  • Basic Concepts: 5
  • Overall Rating: 3.5

Are you interested in ethical hacking? Does a career in web security intrigue you? If you are a professional in the field of ethical hacking, web security, or a pentester and looking to gain deep insight into SQL injection attack then you must begin your knowledge enhancement with an appropriate course.

Although there are numerous courses in the online platform, it is essential to pick a course that covers essential concepts that you are looking to master for achieving a refined skill set to perform better in your career. The need for clarity on an important concept of SQL injection attack is of utmost importance. In the era of digitization, every business and communication has shifted towards the online platform.

The need for experts to oversee any malicious activities in business or social media has become a necessity. The companies are looking for experts that can provide such expertise to protect against suspicious activities from hackers and act as a shield for your privacy and security concerns.

It is extremely important to understand that the level of expertise of the hackers is very high, thus tackling such attackers in the online platform will require professionals to master the art of ethical hacking and web security. Therefore, to enhance the skill set one must acquire the knowledge from the right courses that introduce the theoretical and practical aspects equally.

If you are looking to build your skillset on ethical hacking, then this course called Ethical Hacking – SQL Injection Attack on Udemy is a suitable one to explore important concepts and provide practical knowledge on this topic.

The course is designed to target ethical hackers, pentesters, and web security specialists who have started in this career and are looking to level up their skills. The course is created for educational purposes only and aims to deliver an understanding of key concepts on ethical hacking and cover SQL injection attacks in-depth.

Related reading: Top 8 Ethical Hacking Online Courses


What is SQL Injection Attack?

SQL injection, also known as SQLi, is an injection attack that involves an attacker executing malicious SQL statements to be able to control a web application’s database server. The impact of an SQL injection can be severe as the attacker will gain access to critical information.

On completion of a successful SQL injection attack, the hackers can have unauthorized viewing access to user lists, the possibility of altering and deleting tables from the database, and gain administrative access to the database.

Such information is highly confidential and important for a business and user’s privacy. Some of the sensitive information that may be retrieved could be passwords, credit card details of the users, and personal information. In recent years, many companies have faced data-breaches that have been the result of an SQL injection attack.

In certain scenarios, the attackers have obtained backdoor access into an organization’s system which can result in long-term damage with such breaches if they go unnoticed. Some of the most common forms of SQL injection attacks are listed out below.

  • Hidden data retrieval: The modification of an SQL query to return additional results.
  • Application logic attack: A query that is altered to interfere with the application logic of a system.
  • UNION based attack: The change in the query to have access to data from various database tables.
  • Database attack: The modifications that result in being able to gather information on the version and structure of a database of an organization.
  • Blind SQL injection: A blind SQL injection relates to a query that interacts with the database in the form of true or false questions upon which the answers are determined during the application’s response.

The most popular SQL injection tools are as follows.


SQL map is an open-source SQL injection tool. It is perhaps the most popular among all the tools that are available today. This tool makes it easier to find the SQL injection vulnerabilities of a web application. It allows it to take over the database server and it is considered to have powerful detection capabilities of most of the SQL injection related alterations. It also supports various database servers such as MySQL, Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, PostgreSQL, etc.


SQLninja is yet another SQL injection tool that is used for web applications on a SQL server. This tool may not be as effective as SQLmap in terms of detection, however, it can automate the process once it is discovered and extract critical information from the database server. 

The main purpose of the tool is to give the attacker remote access to the SQL database server. It has the capability of integrating with Metasploit for gaining GUI access to a remote database. It is important to note that this tool is not available for a Windows version. The supported platforms are Linux, FreeBSD, Mac OS X, and iOS.

Safe3 SQL Injector Tool

The Safe3 SQL injector is known to be a powerful and efficient tool that is easy to use for SQL injection purposes. It supports automation of the process much like the other tools. With the help of this tool, an attacker can gain access to a remote SQL server. It is incorporated with an AI system that can recognize the database server, the type of SQL injection in the database, and the best approach to exploit the vulnerabilities.

This tool supports HTTP and HTTPS websites respectively. The tools support numerous database servers such as MySQL, Oracle, SAP Max DB, SQLite to name a few. Furthermore, it also supports various authentications for performing an SQL injection attack.


SQLSus is open source. It is used for MySQL injection and takeover purposes. The tool is written in Perl which gives the option of extending the functions available by more codes that can be added by a user. A command interface allows you to inject your SQL queries to perform the SQL injection attack. It is considered faster and efficient in nature and enables blind injection attack algorithms to maximize the amount of data retrieved.

The process is faster due to the availability of multi-threading. This tool also supports HTTPS websites much like other tools. It also supports cookies, proxy, HTTP authentication. The cloning of database tables and columns is also possible with the use of SQLSUS injection tools. The tool is specialized for MySQL attacks.


What to Expect from the Course?

The students will be introduced to the basic concepts of SQL injection attacks. The expertise to perform SQL injection attacks will be done through practical implementations. You will also be able to use Kali Linux database penetration testing tools as well to have a thorough knowledge. The following section covers the contents that are being offered in this course.

Related: Udemy Review 


Section 1. Database Injection Basic

The first section of the course covers the introductory part with concepts of database injection being covered. The techniques to attack a database and gather information from the database such as email ids, usernames, passwords, and other sensitive data that is available in the backend are explained thoroughly. Database attacking tools in Kali Linux OS are being explored with practical examples. The attacks and related concepts will be practiced on a sample website.

An important concept is explained on how SQL is used to communicate with the front-end and back-end of a website. It is also explored that a malicious SQL query is capable of extracting information from the database if it is not able to understand the malicious nature of the query.

The instructor emphasizes the fact that it is important to understand the basic structure of a database, without which it is not possible to attack a database successfully. The general structure of a database consists of tables and columns on the outer shells and the most inner shell is the data itself.  When attackers try to attack a database they need data and to be able to access it they need to follow a step-by-step process. The database name has to be found, followed by table names and column names which eventually give access to the data.


Section 2. Website Database Hacking using SQLmap Tool

The second part of the course covers the topic of website database hacking using the SQLmap tool. The SQL map allows to attack and gather information from the backend. SQLmap is a command-line tool. The tool is available in the Kali Linux OS.

The tutor explains that trying the examples on a live website is illegal and you must practice on the sample website provided by Acunetix. It is explained that to be able to attack, finding the link is essential. He demonstrates with a practical example of how to use SQLmap tools. The database name and the number of databases have to be extracted before proceeding ahead.

There are fix commands under the SQL map tool that allows finding the name of the database. The testing of the web application takes place after using the commands which gives the results of the databases in the backend of the web link provided. A parameter is found after the testing of the command which allows attacking the database.

The tutor further explains how to find the number of tables and columns of the databases that have been found. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how to modify the query to extract information from the data in the columns.  There was also an example that showed how to find the information of email and password as well.


Section 3. Website Database Hacking Without Using Any Tool

This section covers website database hacking without using any tool. It is explained that there are several options of tools that can be used for SQL injection, however, the tutor provides an insight into database hacking with manual SQL injection.

The example is demonstrated in a follow-along procedure to get the practical skills of how to write the queries to make the alterations. The instructor shows that if the backend sends a warning message on using an apostrophe at the end of the website link, it signifies that the website is vulnerable to SQL injection. The hit and trial method is shown in the example and explained in-depth.

Finally, the order by and union select options are demonstrated in the example and the use of the commands in a manual SQL injection process. It is also described how to manually extract log information in, emails, passwords, credit card numbers, etc. without the need for any tool. It is also possible to wipe out and modify a database with the use of SQL injection.


Section 4. Create a Dictionary using Crunch Commands

The creation of your personal dictionary using crunch commands is covered in this section. The commands are shown with an example and explaining the usage of such commands. The dictionary helps to try password or protocol attacks with the crunch commands. The instructor also explains how to save the file containing the dictionary. The usage of special characters while writing the crunch commands and their results are also demonstrated with the example.


Section 5. Website Database Hacking using JSQL Tool

The fifth section covers the use of GUI based option for SQL injection. The GUI option is known as JSQL. The GUI is demonstrated along with the process to perform SQL injection with the help of this tool. The information of users and products as well as any other data that are available in the database are being extracted with the use of GUI, but the instructor explains the need for writing additional commands to speed up the procedure.

All the information is displayed in separate tabs in the GUI with access to separate information of all the data under each tab. The features and the number of rows are also displayed in the GUI.


Section 6. Bonus Lecture

The final section of the course provides a link to one of the instructor’s courses on ethical hacking. The course is more advanced and covers all the aspects of ethical hacking from the beginner level concepts to the most advanced.


About the Instructor

The course is designed by Sunil K. Gupta. A computer programmer and a cyber-security expert by profession. He provides consultation in the information technology area with a specific focus on cybersecurity. He has also been invited by key organizations as a speaker and is a member of many of them.

Being a technology visionary in the field of cybersecurity, he thrives to solve complex problems. The instructor has been associated with leading organizations for a security consultation and works in the research and development as a security expert to provide state-of-the-art information systems security.

His expertise includes perimeter defense, secure network design, vulnerability discovery, penetration testing, and compliance and intrusion detection systems. Sunil has been instrumental in helping many organizations and military services including the likes of Barclays bank, aviation college in Qatar, Ethiopian Airlines, Telecom authority Tanzania, NCB bank in Saudi Arabia, Accenture, Afgan Wireless, and United States Military to name a few.

He has been involved with startups and is considered among the top cybersecurity experts. Sunil has also created content for various organizations such as Udemy, Pluralsight, INE, Packt Publication, and Apress.

Benefits of the Course

Learning Path

The major advantage of taking this course on Ethical hacking is the key information shared in the entire duration of the course along with important practical exposure to the concepts covered. It is becoming increasingly difficult with the number of online course providers to pick the right one.

Although it is mentioned that it is for ethical hackers and web security specialists, it is suitable for people who have fundamental knowledge about cybersecurity and willing to switch careers as well.

The course is well-designed and covers each topic in a detailed manner with sufficient practical examples to understand the concepts entirely. The course includes the basic information on SQL injection followed by core concepts on this topic.

The benefit of having hands-on experience is essential to have a complete skill set and able to tackle real-world scenarios as a web security expert. There are simplified examples and a follow-along approach.

Another added advantage is the duration of each of the sections being short and easy to understand. The instructor also provides key information and tips on certain queries and methods to implement for SQL injection manually.


The course will also provide certification of completion. This is a free course available on Udemy. However, you can have access to online content, certification, and direct access to the instructor for Q&A, and direct reply from the instructor.

It is important to note that access to online content is available for the free version and remaining options from the paid version are not offered. There is access to an advanced course on ethical hacking that will build your skills from the ground up.

The links are made available at the end of the course. It is an informative course and any individual aiming to achieve key roles in the field of ethical hacking and security may benefit from the course. The beginners with fundamental knowledge about the concept with a technical background may also opt for the course.

Learning Community

There is access to the learning community on Udemy that comprises students and tutors. The benefit of the community is that important resources and tips are being shared on the forum. Additionally, you can post your questions and get support from experienced personnel which will enrich your learning experience.

Hands-on Approach

The course specifically follows a hands-on approach. The practical examples provide the necessary expertise to improve on the key components of writing queries that are required to be successful in the field of ethical hacking. The follow-along provides clarity of the concepts that are taught theoretically much faster.

If you are looking to have a successful career in the field of ethical hacking, then having hands-on experience is the most desired skill set that an employer looks for in an individual. Thus, you are guaranteed to build them in this course. The course is a perfect balance of theory and practical knowledge and provides crucial information that you will benefit from while practicing the examples.

Important Takeaways from the Course

  • Clear and detailed theoretical explanation of the concepts of ethical hacking.
  • Appropriate guidance on where to practice the examples and informing to avoid illegal practice of trying on live websites.
  • An in-depth explanation of each method and approach along with practical follow-along examples.
  • Hands-on experience of database penetration testing tools available in Kali Linux OS.
  • Detailed explanation and examples on SQL map tool and its usage.
  • The purpose of crunch commands in SQL injection attacks.
  • The need for a dictionary created by using crunch commands with different parameters.
  • Differentiating the approaches of using tool based SQL injection and manual SQL injection.
  • Key methods under manual SQL injections are covered along with additional information on alternative methods if a certain command doesn’t work.
  • A key takeaway at the end of the course is to be able to perform SQL injection attacks thoroughly.
  • GUI based approaches that have not been covered in most introductory courses have been explained with examples and practical implementation of examples for clearer understanding.
  • SQL injection attacks for several types of data have been covered in the form of email, password, column data information, credit card information, etc.
  • Using JSQL as the preferred GUI based approach for SQL injection.

Who is the course most suited for?

The course is well-suited for absolute ethical hackers, pentesters, and web security professionals. It is a must to have basic knowledge of computers to be able to take up the course. The basic concepts on SQL injection are covered, thus aspirants looking to take up ethical hacking as a career may benefit from the course.

It is well-crafted and focuses precisely on building the practical skills of the learners. The course content is short and simplified for better understanding. With the major concepts being covered with the use of tools available in Kali Linux OS and manual SQL injection concepts and GUI usage, you can be assured of being equipped with comprehensive knowledge on theoretical concepts and hands-on expertise to contribute largely in an organization.

There is a common misconception in our society that in order to have an occupation that has a high living wage you have to have resilience to stressful factors in order to earn more money. High paying jobs do not have to be stressful; you can earn a good salary without having to work in a high stress, pressurized environment. In reality, your work should be a place of passion, ideas and potential.

Companies are now going to great lengths to improve the work-life balance and wellbeing of their employees. Employee job satisfaction is also paramount to an organization’s success. It is important that you feel supported and valued in your work , instead of stressed and overwrought. Fortunately, if you would like to work in a low strain, high paying jobs, we have a great list of the least stressful job occupations for you.


1. Orthodontist

The average salary for an orthodontist in the USA is $208,000 a year. That’s a lot for someone who helps people change their smile. If you aren’t averse to looking into people’s mouths becoming an orthodontist is a high-paying low stressful job.

From taking molds, fitting braces and telling off sweet eating teenagers, your day wouldn’t be too stressful. It is of course hard work to become an orthodontist, you would need to obtain a degree, complete dental school, and obtain an orthodontist license. The path may be a long hard slog but, in the end, the low pressure and high paycheck aspect of the occupation would be worth it.


2. Optometrist

Six out of ten people in the developed world need to wear glasses. Checking people’s eyesight is quite a lucrative occupation. Optometrist’s day to day routine can often be conducting eye exams to check for problems with sight and any diseases or illnesses that could be affecting the eye. Optometrists earn on average an annual salary of $123,000 a year.

Once again you will need to get a degree in optometry and complete a pre-registration year with a registered optometrist. You also have a final exam at the end of your work placement. The course can often take seven to eight years to fully complete so you will have to work hard to land such a stress-free job.


3. App Designer

Top 17 Low-Stress High Paying Jobs

There can be no doubt that the technological era is upon us and it is now more lucrative than ever. If you studied IT in high school you most likely didn’t realize how much potential there would be for those skills in the future. For those who did, and went on to study coding and software, their decision will have more than paid off by now.

Developing, creating and fixing problems in applications software can be fun, rewarding and extremely well paid, on average earning $105,000 a year. App developers will work on teams and the role can be pretty flexible meaning that a job as an app developer can be a relatively low-stress job. Market trends all over the world suggest that this occupation has been rated as one of the best and the professionals working in this industry are blessed with high paying jobs.


4. Technical Writer

Drafting, developing and creating manuals for equipment can seem like a tedious role but in fact, it is pretty well paid and can be interesting. The general day to day tasks can include creating diagrams and how-to guides that can be print-copy or online.  Technical writers will need to be able to digest technical information and be able to communicate it effectively.

On average a technical writer can earn upwards of $70,000 a year. In terms of qualifications, you should have a bachelor’s degree if you wish to secure a role as a technical writer and it helps if you actually enjoy writing. You will be expected to liaise with engineers and production teams to ensure your materials are correct but most of the time you can work flexibly and autonomously. Being a technical writer, you will still have to work to deadlines, but the pressure is not as high as it might be if you wished to become entertainment or new journalist, it is essentially a stress-free environment.


5. Dental Hygienist

Top 17 Low-Stress High Paying Jobs - Dental Hygenist

Dental Hygienist will clean your teeth and conduct the initial inspection to see if you are suffering from any oral infections. You need an associate degree to undertake this role and it doesn’t comprise some of the more physical demands of being a dentist.

The annual salary can work out at over 70,000 dollars so this could be a great option if you are on an active job search or thinking about changing your vocation, as you don’t need to undertake years of intense study.


6. Radiology Therapist

Working as a Radiology Therapist is a low-stress job for a position that is in the health sector. Health sector jobs are notoriously stressful and overwhelming at times so this is an option if you want to go down a stress-free environment in the health sector. You need an associate degree to be in radiology and empathy is also highly prized as you will be dealing with vulnerable people. You can earn upwards of $50,000 a year in this role.


7. Nutrition Specialist

Nutritionists are highly celebrated in today’s cultural settings. In recent times there has been a huge market trend when it comes to physical health and wellbeing. Dieticians instruct people on how to change their bodies and minds from the inside out, targeting food consumption and special recipes to help people lose fat percentages or bulk up muscle.

This s a specialized field and most people in this profession have obtained some form of a scientific degree. You can earn over $60,000 as a nutritionist and even more if you can become renowned amongst celebrity clientele.


8. Physicist

Becoming a physicist requires a lot of hard work and can take a long time so you will need to be committed if this is the career path you wish to take. You will need a degree and following that a Ph.D. to land a high-paying job.

Physicists are often passionate people who enjoy in-depth research and experiments, but you will have the chance to work in laboratories with other scientists were focusing on your theories will be easy and stress-free. Physicists can earn around 122,000 dollars, it is a common misconception that it is difficult to find a job as a physicist but in general, there is a demand for professionals in this field and you can find a high-paying job just as easily as those who undertook another science major.


9. Statistician

Top 17 Low-Stress High Paying Jobs - Statistician

Unlike Math’s teachers who face an abundant amount of pressure to ensure their students pass, statisticians can work in a stress-free environment, earning a great wage. Making over 100,000 dollars a year, a professional in this field dedicate their lives to testing pre-existing statistical theories or generating original concepts.

Usually hired by research organizations or universities and colleges, having previously been accredited with a Ph.D. Like Science grads, statisticians can work in labs on projects that gather and investigate data to aid with science, policy and engineering.


10. Audiologist

Specializing in the ear and our hearing senses, Audiologists work with people who have hearing impairments or imbalances. Like most jobs that relate to human anatomy and research graduates in this field are expected to go through further schooling and obtain a doctoral degree. Following that they then will need a license to practice. The 80,000-dollar salary will help pay off those student loans, the role comes with moderately low pressure compared to other professions that require a medical degree.


11. Actuary

An actuary is a business professional who deals with research and analysis of risk. They work alongside agencies and corporations to help minimize financial costs using math and statistics to generate data.

With a median income of $102,000, the profession has a great work-life balance and the role is often highly revered in most companies. This is a great profession if you want to work in a relaxed environment but still feel mentally stimulated and challenged in your role. There are often courses specific to Actuary studies in higher education institutes.


12. Speech Therapist

Top 17 Low-Stress High Paying Jobs - Speech Therapist

Speech and language therapists assess, diagnose and treat both children and adults who suffer from speech impediments. This is quite a rewarding profession that is both a well-paid and low-stress job. You’ll need a masters degree to become a speech specialist.

Bear in mind, that this role would mean working with people who have disabilities or autism and even people who can’t speak at all. You will need a level of empathy and general compassion for those you aim to help. The annual salary for a Speech and Language Pathologist is on average $80,000.


13. Processor / Hardware Engineer

Computer hardware engineers typically work in factory or lab settings manufacturing devices. Day to day routines are standard and expected with the work being pretty stress-free. This role is in high demand and the salary can range from 80,000 to a huge 120,000-dollar annual salary, sometimes more.

Responsibilities could include designing, testing and creating new hardware with specialties in gaming, medical equipment, or computer devices. In general, hardware engineers have the potential to earn substantially more than their software counterparts. You can become a hardware engineer by obtaining a bachelor’s degree but some companies will accept an associate degree in computer science. A great career path, if you are interested in tech and design, problem-solving skills are a must-have quality.


14. Massage Therapy

Top 17 Low-Stress High Paying Jobs - Massage Therapy

Massage Therapists have the potential to earn a big salary depending on the company they choose to work for and if you are registered. It can take a year to earn your accreditation and begin working which is really no time at all.

The higher salary range can be between 50,000 to 70,000 a year but the lower end of the scale however can be very low with some therapists earning a modest $25,000 annually. Working in spa’s can be a peaceful existence with the day taking place in a quiet and relaxed environment.


15. Freelancers

Whether it’s writing, digitalization or photography, freelancers have high earning potential depending on their craft and experience. Working for yourself is surely one of the least stressful jobs you can have. Being a freelancer means you can accept or decline jobs depending on the wage, timing and other factors, meaning you get to dictate your own workload.

Your salary can have a range from 20,000 a year to upwards of 79,000 depending on the type of work you take on and the connections you have. You can work quite casually as a freelancer and choose to be out in the field or work from the comfort of your own home, so the stress factor is really what you make it. Although a degree helps if you are trying to land larger contracts, freelancers can also be self-taught. If you love photography you do not need further education to pursue the profession if you have a good eye.


16. Astronomer

Becoming a professional astronomer means having a firm grasp on arithmetic and being an expert in everything concerning the cosmos, you will typically need a Ph.D. It’s a long process but once you reach that level of knowledge graduates can land roles that allow them to spend their days largely stress-free. Duties include, researching the universe in all its brilliance. Tracking changes in the atmosphere and searching for stars. All for a median salary of $122,000 a year.


17. Librarian

If books and learning are your passion, then the good news is that you can earn a pretty good wage to work amongst shelves of your favourite novels. Being a librarian is generally a low-stress job, with most tasks being administrative duties. Having a good knowledge of systems and processes are important skills for a role like this. You can earn upwards of $60,000 a year in this role. Not content in public libraries? There are a whole host of organizations who need people to fulfill this post from universities to law firms and government agencies.


How to Secure Low-Stress High Paying Jobs

Many people believe that in order to get a high-paying job it comes with a lot of sacrifices, and many people opt for a lower-paying job to avoid the prospect of taking on more than they can handle.

There are a number of steps you can take to try to land low stress high paying jobs.


Recognize What Makes You Stressed

Identifying what makes you stressed is the first step in finding a role that is fitting to you. What one person considers to be an anxious situation, other people may take in their stride.

Knowing what induces those feelings helps you avoid a commitment to a role you are ill-suited for. If targets cause you to panic then being a car salesman or working in a call centre may not be the path you wish to follow while looking for a low-stress job.

Alternatively, if public speaking fills you with dread then becoming a teacher might not be the best choice. People can always overcome what they consider to be stressful, sometimes through practice and experience but if it is something you simply can’t handle because it causes you to stress you do not want to live your life like that.


Read the Job Description

Always read the job description and don’t be afraid to contact the recruitment adviser, should you need to ask questions or if you need clarification. The advertisement will give you a glimpse into what the role will require, always do follow up research on the job title to discover the more intricate aspects of the job.

Job roles aren’t going to self-pronounce that they include heavy workloads or that the job will be highly demanding with a large amount of stress. They will give you an indication of what your duties will be, for instance, if the role requires public speaking and presenting it may not suit you if you struggle with standing up in front of a large crowd.



Self-assessment is a must before you apply for a role, be honest with yourself when it comes to knowing what you are capable of and the skills that you have. If you apply for a role that is too advanced, it is a given that you will find it stressful.

Most experienced interviewers will be able to determine if you are suitable and capable of taking on the job through their questions but that doesn’t mean underqualified people never get the role. Look at your qualifications and if you really want to pursue the career but are underqualified consider retraining in that area.

You should also assess what it is that makes you happy. In the long run, having a job you find interesting is the way to find contentment in your work, so find your niche and run with it. Self-assessment is a great technique for finding what you value most, you can then match those values and interests with a company’s culture.


Track your Progress

You should frequently update your resume with the new skills and knowledge you have learned throughout your work, so you know what you are capable of. It helps when matching with a job description and means you will be able to tailor your application to suit the role and what the hiring manager is looking for.

Have a folder where you can store certificates or keep a note of your accomplishments. Even go to the extent of saving emails where people have thanked and complimented you for your work so you can refer to them when discussing your key attributes. Also, track things you feel you can improve on or what has caused you stress in your role.


Stress and Its Impact on Your Health

Stress can have a significant impact on your physical and mental health and wellbeing, causing anxiety, panic attacks as well as cardiovascular issues and even may cause digestive problems.

Not only does it have an impact on your wellbeing but also on the quality of your work. It can cause a loss of motivation and productivity which can result in a deterioration of our relationships with colleagues. Studies have shown that there is a direct link between work related stress and mental illnesses like anxiety and depression.



It is important to note that no job is ever completely stress-free, it just depends on what your own personal definition is for stress tolerance. Finding a role in which you can be happy and healthy is incredibly significant to your life, contentment and wellbeing. Most employers will have stress handling techniques and processes in place if their employees are feeling overwhelmed in their roles.

Look out for the signs and symptoms of work-related stress, feeling angry or irritated at work, or tense and tired are all indicators that you are feeling anxious.

If you do have work-related stress, it may be suggested to you by your employer to take some time off, employers have an obligation to ensure your workload is manageable or that you aren’t working too many hours.

Many organizations will have plans and processes in place to manage stress, larger companies may even have a counsellor you can go and talk to if you are ever feeling down.


See a Careers Counsellor

If you are still unsure of what career path you would like to follow you can always get in touch with a career counsellor. A professional will be able to offer you guidance and support to help you decide which vocational pathway suits your needs and interests. There are a number of tests from personality tests to skills tests that can help assess what talents you have and the jobs those skills are applicable to.

Seeking guidance can expedite the process of you landing a job that you will love and be content in. The advice can help you get to your vocational pathway quicker and without making the mistakes that you may make if you were to try and get there on your own.